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According to archaeological analyzes, functions of megalithic monuments in Europe they are very varied. These contractions are evidence of the earthly and symbolic practices of individuals in society. They serve to describe the lifestyle of the first farmers. They also served as a meeting place as well as an example of the understanding of geometry.
Megalith comes from the Greek and means "large stone”, And refers to a stone structure placed on the ground that, in Europe, They date from 5,000 to 500 BC.. Its meaning is also connected with the development of agricultural communities in the Neolithic, where individuals established concepts of territorialism and identity in the community.
As society advanced and became more complex, so did the monuments, therefore, these are a reflection of the differentiation of the upper classes from the lower ones.
You should not forget the symbolic and astronomical utility that alludes to the connection of man with the universe and the spiritual.
According to the expert Gordon Childe, these constructions are used by archaeologists to measure the development of the complexity of a community of people. According to him, the megalithic phenomenon in Europe It is a reflection of the missionary bands that left for the north to spread the religion, which promoted the development of megalithic constructions in the Mediterranean.
The level of sedentary lifestyle of a society is also a cause of this type of construction, since, according to Renfrew (1981), they are proof of the idea of territorial property that the inhabitants of a region developed. Thus, there was a communal organization favored by agriculture.
For its part, the level of effort and sophistication when building these megalithic constructions demonstrates their importance in society, to the point that they are used as burial places for ancestors, or to carry out rituals and ceremonies. .
Sometimes these constructions have been divided into several phases. Thus, at the beginning of their construction, they were simple and small structures, but over time they expanded and became more complex. They also contain remains of objects such as ceramics, weapons or tools. The color and certain paintings in these constructions also provide symbols or describe the reality of society. At the same time, they are used as astronomical observatories, as in the case of Stonehenge, one of the largest in Europe.
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