George Butcher

George Butcher


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George Butcher was born in St Albans on 5th October 1890. He played football for St Albans City before joining West Ham United. He made his debut against Watford on 2nd March 1910. He played in three games that season. Tony Hogg wrote in Who's Who of West Ham United: "His weight of 11 stone and height of five foot eight inches was just right for a nippy inside-forward, and also stood him in good stead when he became amateur lightweight boxing champion of Hertfordshire."

Butcher had his best season with West Ham United in 1911-12 when he appeared in 16 games. He only played in a handful of games over the next couple of seasons.

West Ham's regular inside-forwards, Richard Leafe and George Hilsdon, were unavailable after the First World War. Butcher therefore played in 33 games in the 1919-20 season. After scoring 12 goals in 71 games Butcher moved to Luton Town on January 1921. Over the next five seasons he made 121 appearances for the club.

George Butcher died at the age of 79 on 11th January 1970.


Butcher Cumberland

The son of King George II and his wife Caroline of Anspach, Prince William Augustus was born in April 1721.

Noble by birth, he was only a child when he received the titles of Duke of Cumberland, Marquess of Berkhampstead, Viscount Trematon and Earl of Kennington. It would be some years later that he was awarded perhaps his most memorable title of Butcher Cumberland, thanks to his role in suppressing the Jacobite Rising.

William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland by William Hogarth, 1732

As a youngster, William was favoured greatly by his parents, so much so that his father, King George II even considered him as heir to his throne in place of his older brother.

By the time he was nineteen, the young prince had joined the Royal Navy but later changed his preference to the Army, in which he held the rank of Major General when he was twenty-one years of age.

The following year he served in the Middle East as well as Europe, taking part in the Battle of Dettingen where he was injured and forced to return home. Nevertheless, his involvement earned him applause on his return and he would later be promoted to Lieutenant General.

William was serving in the army at a particularly crucial time in Europe where the vast majority of monarchs across the continent found themselves engaged in conflict. The War of the Austrian Succession was such a battle which embroiled the great powers of Europe and lasted for eight years, beginning in 1740 and concluding in 1748.

The main crux of the issue surrounding such a struggle was the question of whom should be entitled to succeed the Habsburg Monarchy. Upon the death of the Emperor Charles VI, his daughter Maria Theresa was faced with a challenge to her legitimacy. This stemmed from an agreement made by the Emperor whilst he was reigning monarch, in which he decided that his daughter would take precedence as the rightful heir, however even then it was not without contention.

Emperor Charles VI needed the European powers’ approval and this agreement resulted in some difficult negotiations for the king. Nevertheless, it was recognised by the significant powers involved only thing was, it was not to last.

When he died, a war looked likely to emerge as France, Saxony-Poland, Bavaria, Prussia and Spain defaulted on their promises. Meanwhile, Britain maintained its support for Maria Theresa, along wide the Dutch Republic, Sardinia and Saxony, thus the war of Austrian Succession ensued.

For William, Duke of Cumberland, now aged twenty-four, this meant engaging in important battles and skirmishes such as the Battle of Fontenoy which sadly ended in defeat for the young royal. On 11th May 1745, he found himself as Commander-in-Chief of the British, Dutch, Hanoverian and Austrian alliance, despite his lack of experience.

Prince William, Duke of Cumberland

Cumberland chose to advance on the town which had been besieged by the French, led by their commander Marshal Saxe. Sadly for Cumberland and his allied forces, the French had chosen the location wisely and placed French troops in the forest close by, with marksmen ready to attack.

Strategically, Cumberland made a poor decision when he chose to ignore the forest and the threat it might pose, instead focusing on the main French army at its epicentre. The soldiers engaged in battle valiantly and the Anglo-Hanoverian forces launched their attack. Ultimately Cumberland and his men were forced to retreat.

This would later draw criticism from many. The military loss was felt keenly: Cumberland did not have the experience or the expertise to win and Saxe had simply outperformed him.

The fallout of the battle resulted in Cumberland’s retreat to Brussels and the eventual fall of the towns of Ghent, Ostend and Bruges. Whilst his courage was notable it was not enough against the might and military prowess of the French. His decision to ignore advice, not engage the cavalry to its full capacity and a string of strategic failures cost Cumberland and his side.

Nevertheless, conflict back at home beckoned Cumberland as the pressing concerns emerging from the Jacobite Rising looked set to dominate Britain. The conflict itself sprung from another issue of inheritance, this time relating to Charles Edward Stuart who sought to return the throne to his father, James Francis Edward Stuart.

The Jacobite Rising was a rebellion fought between those who supported “Bonnie Prince Charlie” and his claim to the throne, against the Royal Army which backed and represented George II, the Hanoverian dynasty.

The Jacobites were mainly Scottish, supporters of the Catholic James VII and his claim to the throne. Thus, in 1745 Charles Edward Stuart launched his campaign in the Scottish Highlands at Glenfinnan.

Over the course of a year, the rebellion was marked by several battles which included the Battle of Prestonpans which was won by the Jacobite forces.

Later at Falkirk Muir in January 1746 the Jacobites were successful in fending off the Royal forces led by Lieutenant General Hawley, in the absence of the Duke of Cumberland, who had returned south to secure England’s coastline from the overseas threat still looming from across the continent.

Whilst the Jacobites had proved successful in this battle, overall it did little to improve the outcome of their campaign. With a lack of strategic organisation stunting their progress, Charles’s rebellion was faced with one final test, the Battle of Culloden.

The Battle of Culloden by David Morier, 1746

Upon hearing the news of Hawley’s loss at Falkirk Muir, Cumberland saw fit to head north once more, arriving in Edinburgh in January 1746.

Not happy to rush matters, Cumberland chose to spend time in Aberdeen preparing his troops for the tactics they would be faced with, including the highland charge of the Jacobites.

A few months later, well-trained and re-grouped, the Royal forces set off from Aberdeen to meet their opponents at Inverness. Eventually the stage was set on 16th April the two forces met at Culloden Moor, a battle which looked set to determine an important victory for Cumberland and thus ensure the security of the Hanoverian dynasty.

Cumberland secured this victory with a determination and fervour made all the more extreme by his desire to put an end to the Jacobite uprisings which had for so long dominated this period. His zeal was compounded by the simple fact that he had a massive stake in the outcome. As part of the Hanoverian dynasty, the success of the battle would be pivotal in securing his own future.

The battle to end all battles thus commenced, spurred on by the delivery of news from the Jacobite camp which looked to enrage the Royal forces and cement their burning desire for victory. Thanks in part to an intercepted order from enemy lines, a piece of tampered information from the Jacobites stated that “No quarter was to be given”, therefore, the Royal forces believed that their enemies were ordered to show them no mercy.

With the Royal troops desirably stirred up for the occasion, Cumberland’s plan for victory was falling in to place. On this fateful day, he and his men would commit large scale atrocities on and off the battlefield, killing and wounding not only the Jacobite forces but also those who retreated, as well as innocent bystanders.

The bloodthirsty campaign to finish the Jacobites did not end on the battlefield. Whilst securing his victory, Cumberland gave orders from his headquarters, sending out several contingents of troops, backed by the Royal Navy.

The instructions were to effectively wipe-out and destroy any semblance of life in the Highlands, in what could be described as a genocide of sorts, played out by Royal soldiers setting alight to homes, murdering, imprisoning and raping as they meticulously carried out their instructions.

This methodical approach to finishing the Jacobite cause even extended to the economy, making sure to round up the 20,000 cattle which sustained the community and moving them south. These clinical tactics made sure that the Highland community was effectively crushed physically, economically and spiritually.

Jacobite broadside. Engraving of the Duke of Cumberland with a dagger in his mouth, pulling the skin off the arm of a captive Highlander.

It is for this reason that William, Duke of Cumberland became known by his new title, “Butcher Cumberland”. The barbarous tactics whilst vilified in the Highlands were better received elsewhere, particularly in the Lowlands where there was no love lost for the Jacobites. Instead, the people of the Lowlands sought to reward Cumberland for bringing the rebellion to an end, offering him the Chancellorship of Aberdeen and St Andrew’s University.

The secured defeat of the Jacobites by Cumberland was appreciated in the Lowlands whilst further south in London, a special anthem was produced by Handel in honour of his success.

Despite the better reception outside of the Highlands, Cumberland failed to shake off the new reputation he had acquired and his image even south of the Scottish border took a battering. ‘Butcher Cumberland’ was a name that stuck.

He held on to this unwanted sobriquet whilst he continued to serve in the Seven Years’ War, failing as he did to protect Hanover from the French.

In the end, Prince William Augustus died in London in 1765 aged forty-four, not to be remembered fondly. His name, ‘Butcher Cumberland’ was etched into people’s memories as well as the history books.

Jessica Brain is a freelance writer specialising in history. Based in Kent and a lover of all things historical.


Butcher Ancestors

BUTCHER MISCELLANEOUS [email protected]
A lot of my ancestors were very early settlers of the section of western Virginia that became West Virginia . It seems they came into that area about 1752 and they never left. One family named BUTCHER had land that changed counties many times. My particular family of Butchers came originally from the small village of **Niederlinxweiler in the Saarland area, near Ottweiler in southwestern Germany. They are first found in America in Frederick Co., Maryland with the name of METZGER. Several of the family then dropped down into Harrison county of (West) Virginia. This family, with most of their collateral lines, mainly stayed in West Virginia through six generations.
**The town of Niederlinxweiler is in the Bunderland Saarland, in the county of St.Wendel. In the valley of the Blies (river), it can be reached by Bunder Strasse (road) 41 and via the Rhine - NaHe Railroad. The history of this settlement can be traced for more than 1000 years and was called Linchierilare, in the first recorded document. It originated on the sunny side of the long-stretched Spiemont mountain range above the high water line of the Blies (river). The farmsteads concentrated around the old St.Martin's Church, the predessor building of today's protestant church with the high tower and the circular wall around the graveyard. It was originally situated on the left bank of the river and the settlement extended in the 18th century to the right bank as well and rose higher on the mountainsides to fill both sides of the valley in the 20th century.
In the 9th century, it was established that there was a St.Martins church in Linxweiler and the 1st document mentioning this village dates back to to 871 when King Ludwig der Deutsche granted land to the monastery Neumùnster. Among these land grants was also found the estate Linxweiler with the St. Martins church and was thought of as a "scatter settlement" of isolated farms instead of a village. This area was overrun by soldiers in the 30-years War due to the geographical position of Spain and Lorrain on one side and France & Sweden on the other side. It took 70 years to rebuild the area. The regents of the land called back the refugees and returned their land to them. They also invited new settlers from Switzerland, Tirol & the Netherlands who could only become landowners by marrying into local families. The time of emigration began in 1730, because of the poor yield of the soil and the inheritance law (right to succession) forced many to take on a second job.
Reference: This information was translated for me from the "Niederlinxweiler Die Familien 1537-1973" - published in 1974. FHL Call#943.427/N1 D2h -[This is a county history story written in German. It was translated for me by Ulla Przewolka in Spokane, Washington, who is from Germany].
In the Germanic language(s), the occupation of a butcher is known by the names of schlächter, fleischer and metzger then when these words were Anglicized, they became slaughter, flesher, and metzger. Metzger was usually spelled correctly by literate Germans such as the Ministers but when they were pronounced with a thick German accent and then interpreted by semi-literate, it would get distorted. Spelled phonetically, Metzger was written - Matzger, Mitsker, Matcher, Medsker, Mischarles, Mitcher, Mitscaw and Mitchkar, all of which has been found on records. The most convincing evidence seems to be that the name transition is found after 1775.
Thus, the prepondence of evidence show (1)Valentine "Melchoir" Butcher of Augusta County was in reality - Georg Valentin Metzger.
Georg Valentin Metzger came from Niederlinxweiler, Germany which is between St.Wendel and Ottweiler, about 15 km northeast of Saarbrucken. A brief sketch of the records there has been documented vital records of this family. (2)Georg Valentin was b.19 Apr 1715 and christened on 22 Apr 1715 Manzweiler, Germany, s/o (3) Johann Philip Metzger and Anna Catharina Dohm/Thom, (d/o Hanss Dohm and Elisabetha Catherina Zimmer, who m. 30 May 1672)
(4)Georg Valentin m. Maria Elisabetha Keippert 6 Dec 1739 Niederlinxweiler, GER. Maria Eliisabetha was the d/o(5) Johann Wilhelm Keippert and Anna Catherina Lepper. Anna Catherina was d/o Hans Nickel Lepper and Anna Maria Lehnmeyer, both b. Ottweiler, d. Niederlinxweiler, Germany.
Niederlinxweiler Parish Register: *FHL #1052688 Marriages 1726-1782
GROOM: Georg Valentin Metzger, cooper, son of deceased Philip
Metzger,former citizen and cooper at Mainzweiler
BRIDE: Maria Elisabetha, daughter of Joh.Wilhelm Kieffert of here.
PROCLAMATION: 19 Nov 1739, Elisabeth's Day
MARRIED: 6 Dec 1739
Niederlinxweiler Parish Register: FHL #1052688, Christenings 1726-1782
NAME: Louißa Metzger
BORN: 25 Aug 1746 CHRISTENED: 27 Aug 1746
PARENTS: George Velte Metzger and Maria Elisabeth of Niederlinxweiler
WITNESSES: Johann Theodore, Louisa Maria, ?daughter of Johann Valentin Fieffer.

The genealogy report follows for the Metzger and Butcher Family:
Descendants of Johann Philip Metzger
Generation No. 1
1. JOHANN PHILIP2 METZGER (JOHAN JACOB1) was born 1669 in Jettenbach, Saarland, GER, and died 24 Dec 1738 in Nieder-Linxweiler, Saarland, GER (Source: "Metzger Family History 1653-1981", by Mrs. Cloice E. Metzger.). He married ANNA CATHARINA THOM/DHOM 16 Jan 1694/95 in Welsbach, Saarland, GER, daughter of HANSS DHOM and ELISABETH ZIMMER. She was born 24 Feb 1673/74 in Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER, and died 08 Apr 1742 in Niederlinxweiler, Saarland, GER.
Johanne Philip Metzger waa a sheep herder by trade and his religion was Lutheran. Source: "Metzger Family History 1653-1981" by Mrs. Cloice E. Metzger.
JOHANN METZGER and ANNA THOM/DHOM:
Marriage Bond: n 1694/95, Welsbach, Saarland, GER
Marriage: 17 Jan 1695/96, Ottweiler, GER
Children of JOHANN METZGER and ANNA THOM/DHOM are:
i. MARIA SIBYLLA3 METZGER, b. Welschbach, GER.
ii. JOHANN CASPER METZGER, b. 1696, Welschbach, GER d. 1704, Welschbach, GER.
iii. ANNA EVA METZGER, b. 1698, Stennweitler, GER d. 1732, Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER.
iv. JOHANN ALBERT METZGER, b. 1701, Welschbach, GER.
2. v. JOHANN ADAM METZGER, b. 26 May 1701, , Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER d. Aft. 1748, PA.
vi. CONRAD METZGER, b. Bet. 1701 - 1715.
vii. ANNA MARIA BARBARA METZGER, b. 1707, Welschbach, GER d. 1768, , Ottweiler, GER m. JOHANNA PHILIP FLACCUS, 1733, , Ottweiler, GER.
3. viii. **GEORG VALENTIN METZGER, b. 19 Apr 1715, , Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER d. Bef. 16 Mar 1773, S.Branch, Pendleton, WV.
ix. JOHANN MICHAEL METZGER, b. 1717, Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER d. 1717, Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER.
Generation No. 2
2. JOHANN ADAM3 METZGER (JOHANN PHILIP2, JOHAN JACOB1) was born 26 May 1701 in , Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER, and died Aft. 1748 in PA. He married MARIA CATHERINE SCHERER 14 Feb 1735/36 in NiederLinxweiler, Saarland, GER, daughter of JOHANN SCHERER and ANNA MULLER/MUELLER. She was born Abt. 1715 in Dorrenbach/Niederlinxweiler, GER, and died Bet. 1745 - 1800 in PA.
Children of JOHANN METZGER and MARIA SCHERER are:
i. MARIA APPALONIA4 METZGER, b. 24 May 1739 d. 02 Feb 1739/40.
5. ii. JOHAN VALENTIN METZGER, b. Bet. 13 Apr 1741 - 1743, Niederlinxweiler, Saarland, GER d. 16 Feb 1807, Woodbury Twp, Bedford, PA.
iii. DORTHEA CATHERINA METZGER, b. 10 Mar 1745/46 d. 23 Mar 1745/46.
iv. CATHERINA MARGARETHA METZGER, b. 07 Oct 1748.
v. GEORGE PHILIP METZGER, b. 03 Jul 1737 m. ANNA LOUISE BRUMBAUGH.
6. vi. JOHANN VALENTIN METZGER, b. Bet. 13 Apr 1741 - 1743, Niederlinxweiler, GER d. 16 Feb 1807, Woodbury Twp, Bedford, PA/Blair, PA.
vii. DORTHEA CATHERINA METZGER, b. 07 Oct 1738.

3. GEORG VALENTIN3 METZGER (JOHANN PHILIP2, JOHAN JACOB1) was born 19 Apr 1715 in , Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER, and died Bef. 16 Mar 1773 in S.Branch, Pendleton, WV. He married MARIA ELISABETHA KEIPPERT 06 Dec 1739 in Niederlinxweiler, Germany, daughter of JOHANN KEIPPERT and ANNA LEPPER. She was born Abt. 1720 in Saarland area,Germany, and died Aft. 1764 in , Pendleton, WV.
Georg and his wife, two daughters were the original immigrant to the U.S. He first settled in Frederick Co., MD and then settled into the Augusta/Pendleton area of VA.
His inventory was found but his will has not been and it is believed to be lost. His son, Nicholas Metzger, was named as administrator.
Georg Valentin was christened on 22 Apr 1715 in Mainzweiler, Germany.
He married Maria Elisabeth Keippert in Niederlinxenvweiler. She was d/o Johnan Wilhelm Kieppert of same town. George was listed as a "kiefer" or barrel maker.
George Valentine and his family were granted manumission for 30 florins on March 23, 1749. Manumission meant that all their obligations to the country of their birth were fulfilled and that they were free to travel to another country.
There is no record of George's move to Augusta County, VA from Frederick Co., MD but it may have been as early as 1754. In Feb 1759, he bought items at John Vinegard's estate sale in Feb 1759 as "Valentine Bucher." In December 1759, "Velentine Mitsker" was a witness to John Colly's will. "Valentine Butcher" bought items at Jacob Silver's estate sale in Aug 1761 and in Feb 1762, Valentine Butcher posted bail for Jacob Archenbright in Augusta Co., Court.
He died in the winter of 1772/73 in Pendleton Co., WV. He began using the English name of "Butcher" ca 1759.
Children of GEORG METZGER and MARIA KEIPPERT are:
i. MARY METZGER/BUTCHER.
ii. ANNA BARBARA METZGER/BUTCHER, b. 04 Aug 1743 d. McGayhesville, Rockingham, VA m. (1) JACOB KROPF/CROPP, 02 Mar 1762, Shenandoah Co.,VA m. (2) JACOB KROPP/CROPP, 02 Mar 1762, McGayhayesville, Augusta, VA b. 04 Aug 1743, Niederlinxweiler, GER d. McGayhesville, Rockingham, VA.
**Anna Barbara was married in the Peaked Mountain Church in McGayhayesville, Augusta Co., VA. This was in the Massanutten area, and the area is now called that as well as McGayhayesville, VA.
The fact is that her marriage to Jacob Kropp or Cropp was the record that linked this Metzger/Butcher family back into Niederlinxweiler, the Saarland area of S.W. Germany. Her birth/christening record was the link that proved the Butcher family was German.
More About JACOB KROPF/CROPP and ANNA METZGER/BUTCHER:
Marriage: 02 Mar 1762, McGayhayesville, Shenandoah Co., VA
iii. LOUISA METZGER/BUTCHER, b. 25 Aug 1746 in Niederlinxweiler, Germany and d. Aft. 1749.
iv. NICHOLAS METZGER/BUTCHER, b. Abt. 1750, Frederick Co.MD m. (1) SUSANNA, Abt. 1773, VA m. (2) RACHEL SHOULDERS, 18 Dec 1808, VA m. (3) PRUDENCE WILLIAMS, Abt. 1818. This son was administrator of his father's probate.
v. GASPER METZGER/BUTCHER, b. Abt. 1751, Frederick Co.MD d. Jackson Co,IL m. CATHERIN ? (Surname unknown)
vi. **PAULSER/BALTHASAR METZGER, b. 26 Jan 1753, Fredericktown, Frederick, MD d. 1829, , Lewis, WV when he is buried in the Butcher Cemetery in Turnertown, Lewis Co.. VA. He m. to Elizabeth Bush 17 Jan 1773, , Augusta, WV b. 20 Feb 1758 d. 13 Jun 1839, Weston, Lewis, WV.
Notes for ELIZABETH BUSH:
Legislative Petitions Database Petitioner Search Results - Elizabeth Bush Butcher petition -
"Lewis County Petition of 17 December 1834. To the Honorable the General Assembly of Virginia. Your petitioner humbly sheweth to your Honorable Bodies that in the year her husband Paulser Butcher was a private soldier in a Company of Rangers and Spies under the command of Captain James Booth that in consequence of Captain Booth's untimely Death, her husband Paulser Butcher did not in his lifetime ever receive his wages for said Services, nor has your petitioner every received any kind of compensation for said service of her Late Husband, Your petitioner was ignorant of the mode by which to obtain Compensation until very lately. She has heard that your Honorable Body passed a law at the last Session making provision for David Sleeth and others imbracing the widdow of Thomas Cunningham, Your petitioner knowing that her late husband did serve his country in that Expedition for which Sleeth & others have received renumeration as faithfully as any soldier of his day, which service your petitioner believes was thirteeen months. Your petitioner Being now very old and infirm and dependant upon her Children for maintinance humbly pray your Honorable Body that a law may pass allowing your Humble petitioner the amount which was allowed other persons for the like service. And your petitioner will every Pray. her
1 Dec 1834 Elizabeth X Butcher"
mark
On the outside was the following:
"F.L. Prentis of Wood - Petition of Elizabeth Bucher of Lewis County, praying for compensation for services rendered by her late husband Palser Butcher for 13 months as an Indian Spie for which he never re'cd pay during his life time.
17th Dec 1834. ref'd to Cms 19th Dec - - Reasonable Bill.
Elizabeth received widow's pension, $104.00 from her husband's Revolutionary War Service. Elizabeth is buried in the Butcher Cemetery in Turnertown, near Weston, Lewis, WV, beside her husband, and surrounded by other family members.
viii. WILLIAM METZGER/BUTCHER, b. 1754, Fredericktown, Frederick, MD d. Aft. 1820 m. MARGARET DONNALLY, 17 Jan 1785, Greenburg, Greenbrier, VA.
ix. HENRY METZGER/BUTCHER, b. Abt. 1756, Frederick Co.MD d. Aft. 1826 m. ELIZABETH CLINE, 1785, Shenandoah Co.,VA.
x. JACOB METZGER/BUTCHER, b. 16 Apr 1764, McGaheysville, Rockingham, VA d. 04 Nov 1824, , Fairfield, OH m. ANN-NANCY HELMENTOLER, 31 Dec 788, Rockingham, VA.
xi. MARGARET METZGER/BUTCHER, b. Dec 1765, , Fairfield, OH d. 25 Mar 1848, , Rockingham, VA m. JACOB PITSENBARGER.
4. GEORGE VALENTIN3 METZGER (JOHANN PHILIP2, JOHAN JACOB1) was born 10 Apr 1715 in Mainzweiler, Saarland, GER, and died 1773 in , Pendleton, WV. He married MARIA ELISABETHA KEIPPERT 06 Dec 1739 in Niederlinxweiler, Germany, daughter of JOHANN KEIPPERT and ANNA LEPPER. She was born Abt. 1720 in Saarland area,Germany, and died Aft. 1764 in , Pendleton, WV.
Notes for GEORGE VALENTIN METZGER:
"Pennsylvanien auswanderer aus dem Oberamt Ottweiler" =(Pennsylvania Immigrants from the area of Ottweiler.) The following article was in the Saarbrucken Zeitung, Friday, December 8, 1972 - newspaper. March 2006
Many families were listed in this article as leaving from 11 March to 25 April 1749. "They all left in the spring not to return. they mostly sailed from Rotterdam and arrived in the New World in September of October" notes translated by Suzanne B. Badenhop [[email protected]]
Other names at the same time were Beck, Zollinger, & Paulus. (Suzanne's names)
Manumissions, Ottweiler County, 1738-1754 (State Archives, Saarbruecken, NS II, 5464, NS I, 14) Emigrated 1749 along with his brother Hans Adam Metzger and family from Niederlinxweiler. Ship #3 - as listed in Strassburger/Hinke.
The marriage of George METZGER and MARIA KEIPPERT:
Marriage: 06 Dec 1739, Niederlinxweiler, Germany
Children of GEORGE METZGER and MARIA KEIPPERT are:
i. LOUISA4 METZGER, b. 25 Aug 1746, Niederlinxweiler, GER d. Aft. 1749.
ii. NICHOLAS METZGER, b. Abt. 1750, , Frederick, MD d. Aft. 1818 m. (1) SUSANNA UNKNOWN, Abt. 1773 m. (2) RACHEL SHOULDERS, 18 Dec 1808, , Pendleton, WV m. (3) PRUDENCE WILLIAMS, 26 Apr 1818, , Harrison, WV.
iii. JOHANNES METZGER, b. 27 Jan 1750/51.
iv. GASPER/JASPER METZGER/BUTCHER, b. Bet. 1751 - 1760, South Branch of Potomac, Deer Run, Hampshire, VA d. 21 Nov 1815, , Jackson, IL m. CATHERINE ?, Abt. 1783. He was bur. Nov 1815 Holliday Cemetery, in Jackson, IL.
v. WILLIAM METZGER, b. 1754, , Frederick, MD d. Aft. 1820, Greenburg, Greenbrier, VA.
vi. HENRY METZGER, b. Abt. 1756, , Frederick, MD d. Aft. 1826.
vii. GEORGE VALENTINE METZGER, JR, b. 21 Jan 1762, , Rockingham, VA.
viii. JACOB METZGER, b. 16 Apr 1762, McGaheysville, Rockingham, VA d. 04 Nov 1824, ,Fairfield, OH.
ix. MARGARET METZGER, b. Dec 1768, VA d. 25 Mar 1848, Wayne, Darke, OH.
Generation No. 3
5. JOHAN VALENTIN4 METZGER (JOHANN ADAM3, JOHANN PHILIP2, JOHAN JACOB1) was born Bet. 13 Apr 1741 - 1743 in Niederlinxweiler, Saarland, GER, and died 16 Feb 1807 in Woodbury Twp, Bedford, PA. He married CATHARINE ?. She was born 1745 in Germany, and died 1807 in , Bedford, PA.
Notes for JOHAN VALENTIN METZGER:
Johann immigrated from Germany to Philadelphia 1758. He was thought to be an indentured servant for ca 5 years. They moved to the eastern part of Fredricksburg, PA. He was a farmer and a weaver.
Other research indicates that he was born in the Wurttemberg District in 1741. This information was from the "Metzger Family History" by Mrs.Cloice E. Metzger.
Children of JOHAN METZGER and CATHARINE ? are:
i. MARY ELIZABETH5 METZGER, b. 1769.
8. ii. JOHN METZGER, JR., b. 18 Jan 1771 d. 18 Jan 1837, Middletown, PA.
iii. JACOB METZGER, (SR.), b. 06 Mar 1781.
6. JOHANN VALENTIN4 METZGER (JOHANN ADAM3, JOHANN PHILIP2, JOHAN JACOB1) was born Bet. 13 Apr 1741 - 1743 in Niederlinxweiler, GER, and died 16 Feb 1807 in Woodbury Twp, Bedford, PA/Blair, PA. He married CATHARINE. She was born 1745 in Germany, and died 1807 in , Bedford, PA.
Notes for JOHANN VALENTIN METZGER:
He came from Germany to Baltimore, MD in 1758 as an Indentured servant for about 5 years. He moved to east of Fredricksburg, PA and was a farmer and weaver ("Johannes Metzgaar"). He had landed in Philadelphia in 1758. Other research indicates that he was born in the Wurrtemberg District in 1741.
Children of JOHANN METZGER and CATHARINE are:
i. ELIZABETH5 METZGER, b. 1760.
ii. SUSANNA METZGER, b. 18 Nov 1761.
iii. CATHARINA METZGER, b. 1763.
iv. CHRISTINA METZGER, b. 25 May 1765.
v. MARY ELIZABETH "ANNE" METZGER, b. 1769.
9. vi. HENRY METZGER, b. 31 Oct 1778, , Bedford, PA d. 11 Sep 1859, , Montgomery, OH.
vii. JACOB METZGER, SR., b. 06 Mar 1781.
viii. ANDREW METZGER, b. 03 Jan 1785, , Huntingdon, PA d. 17 Feb 1848, , Clinton, IN m. MARY ULRICH, Abt. 1808 b. 1786. He is buried Middle Fork Cemetery in Clinton, IN.
More About ANDREW METZGER and MARY ULRICH:
7. BALTHAZER METZGER (PAULSER BUTCHER)(GEORG VALENTIN3 METZGER, JOHANN PHILIP2, JOHAN JACOB1) was born 26 Jan 1753 in Frederick town, Frederick, MD, and died 1829 in Weston, Lewis, WV. He married ELIZABETH BUSH Jan 1773 in , Augusta, WV, daughter of GEORG BUSH and SUSANNAH. She was born 20 Feb 1758, and died 13 Jun 1839 in Weston, Lewis, WV.
Notes for PAULSER BUTCHER:
Paulser was born and baptised Balthaser Metzger in Frederick Co., MD. 26 Jan 1753. He was baptised at the Frederick Evangelical Lutheran Church there on 3 Mar 1753. He was sponsored by Balthasar Bach and the single daughter Maria Elisabeth Fautin.
Paulser or Balser is a nickname of Balthasar for in German "b's" and "p's" are pronounced the same.
He served as a soldier in the Rangers & Spies company which was made up of the best riflemen and outdoorsman. In "Border Settlers of Northwestern VA" pg 445 - stated 20 Dec 1838, = David W. Sleeth of Licking Co.,OH then - "was well spoken of in connection with his testimony for Jacob Bush and perhaps others, and he seemed to stand well with the settlers in general. Mrs. Elizabeth Butcher, John Cutright and Mrs, Phoebe Cunningham testified in behalf of Sleeth. Mrs. Butcher was the widow of Paulcer Butcher, a member of the same company of spies with Sleeth, who was a resident on Leading Creek in Lewis Co., 1834. "
The original home of Paulser was shown in a photograph in the Weston Democrat - Wed. 26 Nov 1975, pg. 10. "It is thought to have been originally built as early as 1801. It is now located on the Hunter Bennett riverside farm at Jordanville, just north on the west side of the West Fork river, a short distance downstream from the mouth of Maxwell Run. The original part of the home was a simple, single log cabin, and then later another cabin of the identical dimensions was erected close by and was so positioned that the two could be eventually join by additional timbering to make the large home that stands today." The house, when in its present configuration was completed is unknown, but it could have been as early as 1825."
In checking the land indexes for WV, his best friend and neighbor, was Henry Flesher (Paulsers dau, Sarah m. Henry Flesher, Jr.) and a Henry Flesher was given "50 acres on the branches of Canoe Run, a branch of the South Fork of Potomack" - 12 May 1770 VA State Land Office, Patents 1-42 reels 1-41. Location: Augusta Co.
Freemans Creek District is essentially the northwest quadrant (1/4th) of Lewis Co. The east boundary appears to be the Wet Fork River except in Weton where it might be Main Street north of West Second Street. The South boundry is one-three miles south of US 33 and includes all areas drained by Polk Creek and Leading Creek. Towns/villages included are Vadis, Hurst, Alum Bridge, Camden, Churchville, Freemansburg, BUTCHERSVILLE, Pickle Street, Pricetown, etc.
Family History Library Film #818716 -
A land record dated 9th April 1822 by P. Butcher and wife, Elizabeth, to Jno Butcher - is a deed for 1890 acres wet side of West Fork river. This land adjoined land of Jacob Bush, Adam Flesher, & Charles Fisher. Part of 164 acres that was conveyed from Elijah States to said Butcher the 30th day of April 1801 for the amount of $95.00 to Paulser & Elisabeth Butcher (his wife) to John Butcher and his heirs forever.
The tombstone in Butcher Cemetery said "born in England". That is wrong as we now know.
The will of Pauler was probated Sept court 1832. He d. in 1829 Weston, Lewis Co., WV.
He is buried in Butcherville, near Weston, Lewis, WV. Directions --
"At the corner of Main Ave. and Fourth St. in Weston, Lewis Co., WV, Road (west side of the river going north and numbered County Rt.1) Go to Turnertown. In Turnertown take the first side street to the right, beside Brooks Body Shop. Cross the railroad tracks, continue past the first side street, turn right at the 2nd side street. Proceed on this street until you reach cemetery at the end of the street. There is a parking lot at the cemetery. The cemetery is in good condition and is still being used as a burial ground. It is commonly known as the Butchersille or Butcher Cemetery. In the center, is found one of the oldest stones we have - seen so far - BUSH. It was hand carved fieldstone. " This headstone they are refering to is that of George B. Bush, who was said to be related to Paulser's wife, Elizabeth Bush. The little diagram of this says "Died George B. Bush in the 107th year of his age Febry 17, 1813."
There is a little community of houses in Butchersville and border the cemetery. It is a very old cemetery but there are some much newer graves in it. It is said that if you don't have directions to this cemetery, you never would find it.
There is a star on the headstone of Paulser's grave and it is believed that was done to all who were veterans of our wars.
Adam Flesher, neighbor and son of Paulser's closest friend was honored with a DAR marker on his grave in the Butcher cemetery in Turnertown, Lewis Co., WV. They lived on the West Fork River at the mouth of Stone Coal Creek.. This includes much of the town of Weston today. In those days, there were forts every ten or twenty miles because of the Indian problem. This Butcher cemetery is also called Riverside and is right off of Old Mill Road. See picture in the scrapbook of that cemetery..
There is a sign on the highway that says " Seven Butcher Brothers Served in the Revolutionary War." That statement is untrue - we cannot connect all of the seven named Butchers to be related to our own Butcher family. When the sign was constructed, they must have just gathered all the Butcher named men who served in the Rev and came to the conclusion that they were all related. We cannot document that statement whatsoever.
"The Descendants of Paulser Butcher" by Virginia Dean Lawson, 1957. call #929.273 B971L Salt Lake City, Family History Library.
Abstracts of Lewis Co., WV (1817-1827) p.52
pg.328:
"Paulser Butcher and Elizabeth, his wife to John Butcher, all of Lewis Co. deed of 190 acres for $95 Land lyting in Lewis Co. by waters that empty into west side of West Fork joining land of Jacob Bush, Abraham Flesher, Charles Flesher and Henry Waldeck by virtue of 150 acres patented to Paulser Butcher bearing date of 9 Nov 1804 and 40 acres Part of 164 acres conveyed from Elijah States (Statts) to Paulser Butcher 20 Apr 1802 bounded by Charles Fishers corner, formerly Edward Radcliffs to Adams Fleshers corner.
s/Pauls Butcher."

Lewis County, (W)VA 1830 Federal Census INDEX This Census was .
. pg0227.txt 231 1 Bush Michael G pg0227.txt 228 7 Bush Paulser pg0227.txt 227
. 231 18 Butcher Joseph pg0227.txt 227 25 Butcher Paulser pg0227.txt 229 .
Elizabeth Bush Butcher petition -
"Lewis County Petition of 17 December 1834. To the Honorable the General Assembly of Virginia. Your petitioner humbly sheweth to your Honorable Bodies that in the year her husband Paulser Butcher was a private soldier in a Company of Rangers and Spies under the command of Captain James Booth that in consequence of Captain Booth's untimely Death, her husband Paulser Butcher did not in his lifetime ever receive his wages for said Services, nor has your petitioner every received any kind of compensation for said service of her Late Husband, Your petitioner was ignorant of the mode by which to obtain Compensation until very lately. She has heard that your Honorable Body passed a law at the last Session making provision for David Sleeth and others imbracing the widdow of Thomas Cunningham, Your petitioner knowing that her late husband did serve his country in that Expedition for which Sleeth & others have received renumeration as faithfully as any soldier of his day, which service your petitioner believes was thirteeen months. Your petitioner Being now very old and infirm and dependant upon her Children for maintinance humbly pray your Honorable Body that a law may pass allowing your Humble petitioner the amount which was allowed other persons for the like service. And your petitioner will every Pray. her
1 Dec 1834 Elizabeth X Butcher"
mark
On the outside was the following:
"F.L. Prentis of Wood - Petition of Elizabeth Bucher of Lewis County, praying for compensation for services rendered by her late husband Palser Butcher for 13 months as an Indian Spie for which he never re'cd pay during his life time.
17th Dec 1834. ref'd to Cms 19th Dec - - Reasonable Bill.
Elizabeth received widow's pension, $104.00 from her husband's Revolutionary War Service.
Elizabeth is buried in the Butcher Cemetery in Butcherville, near Weston, Lewis, WV.

Children of PAULSER BUTCHER and ELIZABETH BUSH are:
i. SARAH5 BUTCHER, b. 18 Nov 1773, Harrison Co. (W)VA d. Harrison Co. (W)VA m. HENRY FLESHER, Jr. 20 Mar 1797, Harrison Co. (W)VA.
"29 Oct 1789, Henry Flesher, Harrison Co., to Peter McKinley,Hardy Co., 30 acres on branches of CONOW Run, a branch of the South Fork, no adjoiners named: patented 12 May 1770. Consideration 㿎, VA. Signed, Henry Flesher
Witnesses: none. Acknowledged in court, 2 Nov 1789. No delivery shown. Recorded 1:67-68."
Canow Run was the misspelling of Canoe Run. This is the same tract, less 10 acres that Henry was granted from King George III. There is a copy of the origninal grant in the State Archives in Charleston. The grant is for 50 acrs on Canoe Run and is dated 12 May 1770.
ii. GEORGE BUTCHER, b. 11 Dec 1775, , Harrison, WV d. 17 Feb 1867, , Lewis, WV m. MARY ARGOBRIGHT, 07 Feb 1799, , Harrison, WV b. 21 May 1780 d. 15 Jul 1845, , Lewis, WVA.
George and Mary were both buried in the Butcher Cemetery in Butcherville, near Weston, Lewis co., WV.
iii. UNKNOWN BUTCHER, b. Abt. 1778.
10. iv.** JOHN ANDERSON BUTCHER, b. 22 Jan 1783, , Harrison, WV d. 05 Oct 1868, Turnertown, Lewis, WV.
v. JASPER/GASPER BUTCHER, b. 07 Feb 1785, , Harrison, WV d. 26 Jul 1872, Polk Creek, Lewis, WV m. MARY BUTCHER, 09 Aug 1812, , Harrison, WV b. 1788 d. 1872, , Lewis, WV.
Gasper Butcher d. on the 26th inst. aged eighty-six years, at his home on Polk Creek. He was one of Lewis County's oldest settlers and leaves a host of friends to mourn his departure.
Burial: St. Boniface Church, Leading Creek, Lewis, WV
vi. VALENTINE JEFFERSON BUTCHER, b. 28 Feb 1788, , Harrison, WV d. 06 Sep 1863, , Ritchie, WV m. MARYANN MARGARET TETER, 06 Sep 1863, Harrison Co. (W)VA b. 1798 d. 1888, Ritchie Co, WV.
Notes for MARYANN MARGARET TETER:
James Allen was named as stepfather of Mary Ann Margaret Teeter, when she married Valentin Butcher. According to Morton's Pendleton History, found Isaac Teeter married 1795 Frances Fisher. He d. 1800.
vii. SOLOMAN BUTCHER, b. 30 Aug 1790 d. 02 Apr 1879.
Solomon Butcher d. 2 Apr 1879 at the age of 88y 7m 3d. This was according to the Cemetery Book Vol. II - Hackers Creek Pioneer Descendants.
Burial: Butcher Cemetery, Butcherville, Lewis, WV. In the will of Paulser, he bequested money to Solomon "if he ever comes home again."
viii. MARYAN BUTCHER, b. 07 Dec 1791, , Harrison, WV d. 15 Mar 1853, , Lewis, WV.
Mary Ann was 61 yrs. 3 mos. and 8 days when she was buried in Butcherville, near Weston, Lewis, WV.
11. ix. HENRY BUTCHER, b. 19 Jan 1793, , Harrison, WV d. 03 Nov 1866, , Lewis, WV.
x. JACOB BUTCHER, b. 17 Nov 1796, , Harrison, WV d. 19 Jun 1877, Weston, Lewis, WV m. BARBARA FLESHER, 13 Dec 1823, Weston, Lewis Co., (W)VA d. 07 Jan 1875, Lewis Co., (W)VA.
xi. WILLIAM BUTCHER, b. 13 Aug 1798 d. 19 Jul 1829. We have no further record for William.
Generation No. 4
8. JOHN5 METZGER, JR. (JOHAN VALENTIN4, JOHANN ADAM3, JOHANN PHILIP2, JOHAN JACOB1) was born 18 Jan 1771, and died 18 Jan 1837 in Middletown, PA. He married CHRISTINA HOOVER 1797 in , Bedford, PA. She was born 10 May 1778 in , Bedford, PA, and died 18 Oct 1856 in Middletow, PA.
Children of Henry and Susannah :
i. JACOB6 METZGER, b. 16 Mar 1799.
ii. DAVID METZGER, b. 11 Mar 1798.
iii. JOHN METZGER, b. 23 Oct 1801 d. 27 Nov 1867.
iv. NANCY ANNA METZGER, b. 01 Oct 1803.
v. ANDREW M. METZGER, b. 01 Mar 1805.
vi. ELIZABETH METZGER, b. Abt. 1808.
vii. ISAAC METZGER, b. 31 Jan 1809.
viii. KATHERINE METZGER, b. 15 May 1812, , Bedford, PA.
ix. FRANCIS (FANNIE) METZGER, b. 14 Feb 1814.
x. SUSANNA METZGER, b. 05 Jul 1816.
xi. DANIEL METZGER, b. 18 Feb 1818.
xii. CHRISTINIA METZGER, b. Abt. 1821.


The butcher concept

Whitaker had the idea of creating a satirical commentary on The Beatles’ fame, inspired by the German surrealist Hans Bellmer’s images of dismembered doll and mannequin parts.

It was later claimed that the photographs were intended as a protest by The Beatles on their treatment by the press and public, and Capitol Records’ insistence on reordering their album tracks for the American market, but Whitaker later denied this, saying it was entirely his idea.

Q: How did that photo, featuring the Beatles among slabs of meat and decapitated dolls, come about? Was it your idea or the Beatles’?

Robert Whitaker: It was mine. Absolutely. It was part of three pictures that should have gone into an icon. And it was a rough. If you could imagine, the background of that picture should have been all gold. Around the heads would have gone silver halos, jewelled. Then there are two other pictures that are in the book [The Unseen Beatles], but not in colour.

Q: How did you prepare for the shoot?

It was hard work. I had to go to the local butcher and get pork. I had to go to a doll factory and find the dolls. I had to go to an eye factory and find the eyes. False teeth. There’s a lot in that photograph. I think John’s almost-last written words were about that particular cover that was pointed out to me by Martin Harrison, who wrote the text to my book. I didn’t even know that, but I’m learning a lot.

Q: Why meat and dolls? There’s been a lot of conjecture over the years about what that photo meant. The most popular theory is that it was a protest by the Beatles against Capitol Records for supposedly “butchering” their records in the States.

Rubbish, absolute nonsense. If the trilogy or triptych of the three photographs had ever come together, it would have made sense. There is another set of photos in the book which is the Beatles with a girl with her back toward you, hanging on to sausages. Those sausages were meant to be an umbilical cord. Does this start to open a few chapters?

Q: Were you aware when you shot it that Capitol Records was going to use it as a record cover?

No.

Q: Were you upset when they did and then when they pulled it and replaced it with another photo?

Well, I shot that photo too, of them sitting on a trunk, the one that they pasted over it. I fairly remember being bewildered by the whole thing. I had no reason to be bewildered by it, purely and simply, because it could certainly be construed as a fairly shocking collection of bits and pieces to stick on a group of people and represent that in this country.

The triptych as intended by Whitaker was to be retouched to make The Beatles appear as religious icons. The decoration was intended to contrast with the earthiness of the meat and dummies, underlining the group’s normality beneath their fame.

Out-takes from the session, included in Whitaker’s book The Unseen Beatles, indicate the form the triptych was to take. The first photograph shows the group facing a woman standing with her back to the camera, with her hands raised in surprise or worship. The Beatles held a string of sausages, intended to symbolise an umbilical cord, to emphasise that the group were born like everybody else.

The triptych’s centre panel is the image now known as the ‘butcher’ photograph, and shows The Beatles dressed in butchers’ white coats, surrounded by slabs of meat and doll parts.

The final panel was an image of George Harrison standing behind a seated John Lennon, holding a hammer as if he was driving nails into Lennon’s head. This was intended to underline that The Beatles were real and substantial, not idols to worship.

The butcher photograph was used in advertisements for ‘Paperback Writer’ in the British music press before it appeared on the cover of the Capitol Records compilation Yesterday… And Today.

Capitol pressed the cover in early June 1966, but upon its release that month it was swiftly recalled after an outcry from record retailers. Nervous after Lennon’s comments about The Beatles being “more popular than Jesus”, the label issued letters of apology and hastily issued the album with a replacement cover, also taken by Whitaker.

Eventually it was decided that it would be cheaper to paste the new cover shot over the withdrawn butcher sleeves. Unpeeled copies are now highly sought-after by collectors however, the most valuable are the original ‘first state’ versions, particularly the stereo pressings.


Cyril Butcher

Cyril George Butcher (31 July 1909 – 23 February 1987) was an English actor and director and longtime companion of Beverley Nichols.

Cyril George Butcher was born on 31 July 1909, in Suffolk, England.

In 1930 the magazine Film Weekly sponsored a pair of film acting scholarships. The two winners (Cyril Butcher and Aileen Despard) went on to appear in the now lost Alfred Hitchcock short An Elastic Affair and placed under contract by British International Pictures. [1]

In the early 1930s he met novelist and playwright Beverley Nichols and they remained lifelong partners from then. Their friends were Hugh Walpole and Lord Berners, among others. [2] In 1939 Butcher was living with Nichols and a valet at 1 Ellerdale Close, Hampstead, London. [3]

In 1934 he published In Extremis, Worst Moments in the Lives of the Famous with a foreword by Beverley Nichols. [4] In 1939, together with Albert Arlen, he directed the play Counterfeit! at the Duke of York's, London. [5]

In 1953 Butcher adapted Evensong by Beverley Nichols for the television, [6] while in 1956 he directed the television adaptation of Macadam and Eve from the play of Roger Macdougall. [7] Butcher was the producer of the 1957 television drama Granite Peak. [8]

Between 1959 and 1963 he directed for television: Ideal Home Exhibition (1963), The English Captain (1960), The Last Hours (1959), Old People Part 1 (1959) and Election Results 1959 (1959). [9]

On the death of Nichols in 1984 Butcher was the main beneficiary in his will, amounting to £131,750 (£426,580 in 2019 sterling). [10]

Cyril Butcher died on 23 February 1987 at Sudbrooke Cottage, the house he shared with Nichols, at Ham Common, Richmond, Surrey.


Contents

William was born in Leicester House, in Leicester Fields (now Leicester Square), Westminster, London, where his parents had moved after his grandfather, George I, accepted the invitation to ascend the British throne. [3] His godparents included the King and Queen in Prussia (his paternal aunt), but they apparently did not take part in person and were presumably represented by proxy. [6] On 27 July 1726, [7] at only five years old, he was created Duke of Cumberland, Marquess of Berkhamstead in the County of Hertford, Earl of Kennington in the County of Surrey, Viscount of Trematon in the County of Cornwall, and Baron of the Isle of Alderney. [8]

The young prince was educated well his mother appointed Edmond Halley as a tutor. [9] Another of his tutors (and occasional proxy for him) was his mother's favourite Andrew Fountaine. [10] At Hampton Court Palace, apartments were designed specially for him by William Kent. [11]

William's elder brother Frederick, Prince of Wales, proposed dividing the king's dominions. Frederick would get Britain, while William would get Hanover. This proposal came to nothing. [12]

From childhood, he showed physical courage and ability, and became his parents' favourite. [13] He was enrolled in the 2nd Foot Guards and made a Knight of the Bath aged four. [14] He was intended, by the King and Queen, for the office of Lord High Admiral, and, in 1740, he sailed, as a volunteer, in the fleet under the command of Sir John Norris, but he quickly became dissatisfied with the Navy, [15] and, instead secured the post of colonel of the First Regiment of Foot Guards on 20 February 1741. [16]

In December 1742, he became a major-general, and, the following year, he first saw active service in Germany. [3] George II and the "martial boy" shared in the glory of the Battle of Dettingen (27 June 1743), [17] where Cumberland was wounded in his right leg by a musket ball. [3] After the battle he was made a lieutenant general. [15] [18]

In 1745, Cumberland was given the honorary title of Captain-General of the British land forces and in Flanders became Commander-in-Chief of the allied British, Hanoverian, Austrian and Dutch troops despite his inexperience. [15] He initially planned to take the offensive against the French, in a move he hoped would lead to the capture of Paris, but was persuaded by his advisors that this was impossible given the vast numerical superiority of the enemy. [19]

As it became clear that the French intention was to take Tournai, Cumberland advanced to the relief of the town, which was besieged by Marshal Saxe. In the resulting Battle of Fontenoy on 11 May 1745, the Allies were defeated by the French. [20] Saxe had picked the battleground on which to confront the British, and filled the nearby woods with French marksmen. Cumberland ignored the threat of the woods when drawing up his battle plans, and instead concentrated on seizing the town of Fontenoy and attacking the main French army nearby. [21]

Despite a concerted Anglo-Hanoverian attack on the French centre, which led many to believe the Allies had won, the failure to clear the woods and of the Dutch forces to capture Fontenoy forced Cumberland to retreat to Brussels, where he was unable to prevent the fall of Ghent, Bruges and Ostend. [22] Cumberland was frequently criticised for his tactics in the battle, particularly his failure to occupy the woods. [23]

As the leading British general of the day, he was chosen to put a decisive stop to Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a direct descendant of James VII of Scotland and II of England (James VII/II was the last Stuart king on the male line), in the Jacobite rising of 1745. His appointment was popular, and caused morale to soar amongst the public and troops loyal to King George. [24]

Recalled from Flanders, Cumberland proceeded with preparations for quelling the Stuart (Jacobite) uprising. The Jacobite army had advanced southwards into England, hoping that English Jacobites would rise and join them. However, after receiving only limited support such as the Manchester Regiment, the followers of Charles decided to withdraw to Scotland. [25]

Cumberland joined the Midland army under Ligonier, and began pursuit of the enemy, as the Stuarts retreated northwards from Derby. [26] [3] On reaching Penrith, the advanced portion of his army was repulsed on Clifton Moor in December 1745, and Cumberland became aware that an attempt to overtake the retreating Highlanders would be hopeless. [27] Carlisle was retaken, and he was recalled to London, where preparations were in hand to meet an expected French invasion. [3] The defeat of his replacement as commander, Henry Hawley, roused the fears of the English people in January 1746, [26] when, under a hail of pistol fire, "eighty dragoons fell dead upon the spot" at Falkirk Muir. [28]

Culloden Edit

Arriving in Edinburgh on 30 January 1746, he at once proceeded in search of Charles. He made a detour to Aberdeen, [29] where he spent some time training the well-equipped forces now under his command for the next stage of the conflict in which they were about to engage. [26]

On 8 April 1746, he set out from Aberdeen for Inverness, and, on 16 April, he fought the decisive Battle of Culloden, in which the Stuart forces were completely destroyed. [26] [25] Cumberland ordered his troops to show no quarter against any remaining Jacobite rebels (French Army personnel, including those who were British-or Irish-born, were treated as legitimate combatants). His troops traversed the battlefield and stabbed any of the rebel soldiers who were still alive. [30] When Cumberland learned that a wounded soldier lying at his feet belonged to the opposing cause, he instructed a major to shoot him when the major (James Wolfe) refused to do so, Cumberland commanded a private soldier to complete the required duty. [30]

The British Army then embarked upon the so-called 'pacification' of Jacobite areas of the Highlands. All those of the troops believed to be 'rebels' were killed, as were non-combatants 'rebellious' settlements were burned and livestock was confiscated on a large scale. [31] Over a hundred Jacobites were hanged. [32] Women were imprisoned, and droves of people were sent by ship to London for trial as the journey took up to 8 months, many of them died on the way. [30]

"Butcher Cumberland" Edit

Following Culloden, Cumberland was nicknamed "Sweet William" by his Whig supporters and "The Butcher" by his Tory opponents [33] the latter being a taunt first recorded in the City of London [34] and used for political purposes in England. Cumberland's own brother, the Prince of Wales (who had been refused permission to take a military role on his father's behalf), seems to have encouraged the virulent attacks upon the Duke. Cumberland preserved the strictest discipline in his camp. He was inflexible in the execution of what he deemed to be his duty, without favour to any man. In only a few cases he exercised his influence in favour of clemency. [26] [nb 1] The Duke's victorious efforts were acknowledged by his being voted an income of £25,000 per annum over and above his money from the civil list. [3] A thanksgiving service was held at St Paul's Cathedral, that included the first performance of Handel's oratorio Judas Maccabaeus, composed especially for Cumberland, which contains the anthem "See the Conquering Hero Comes". [35]

Return to the Continent Edit

The Duke took no part in the Flanders campaign of 1746, during which the French made huge advances capturing Brussels and defeating the Allies at Rocoux. [26] In 1747, Cumberland returned to the Continent and he again opposed the still-victorious Marshal Saxe and received a heavy defeat at the Battle of Lauffeld, or Val, near Maastricht, on 2 July 1747. [36] This and the fall of Bergen-op-Zoom compelled the two sides to the negotiating table and in 1748 the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was concluded and Cumberland returned home. [37]

Cumberland's unpopularity, which had steadily increased since Culloden, interfered greatly with his success in politics, and when the death of the Prince of Wales brought the latter's son, a minor, next in succession to the throne, the Duke was not able to secure for himself the contingent regency. [26] As a compromise, the regency was vested in the Dowager Princess of Wales, who considered him an enemy, but her powers were curtailed and she was to be advised by a committee of twelve men, headed by Cumberland. [38]

Attempts at army reform Edit

Whilst in the office of Commander-in-Chief Cumberland attempted to reform the peacetime army with the support of his father. He wished to wrest control over promotions from the government to the army itself and to limit or curtail the practise of purchase. Cumberland further wished to create a special standing force which could be quickly deployed overseas in time of crisis. [39] The Whigs who only tolerated the army's existence in peacetime and only had confidence in their control over the militia, saw the expansion and further professionalisation of the army as absolutist. Critics such as Horace Walpole argued the institution of purchase was one of the safeguards of parliamentary sovereignty against Royalist insurrection. [39] Cumberland's opponent in government Charles Townshend wished to instead further reduce the peacetime army and reform the militia by creating a volunteer force for home defence, a precursor to the volunteers of the 19th century which would be under the direct control of civil authorities. [39]

North America Edit

In 1754, the simmering colonial rivalry between Britain and France over competing territorial claims in North America developed into war. France asserted its claim to Ohio Valley by building a network of powerful fortifications. The government ministry led by Newcastle initially proposed a limited military response in which a Highland regiment supported by colonial forces would drive the French from the Ohio Valley. [40] [41] Cumberland believed the plan was not decisive enough to protect British interests in North America and expanded the plan to include a four pronged assault against New France, with forces striking simultaneously at Duquesne, Crown Point, Niagara, and Beauséjour. [42] Cumberland proposed that only overwhelming force would defeat France in America, which was contradictory to Newcastle's own proposals and previous government strategies which advocated limited offensive operations. [42] [41] Further he proposed a role of commander in chief for forces in America, who would have the power to levy local troops and direct local strategy. [40] A 3,500 strong mixed force of regulars, militia, and allied natives would be assembled and would cross the Virginia mountains and strike Duquesne, two regiments drawn from Ireland were given this task. [43] An officer who had impressed Cumberland on previous campaigns, Edward Braddock, was given command of all crown forces in America, to the surprise of many in the army as Braddock was relatively unknown. [41] Newcastle approved the bolder plan, which met with limited success. In his role as army Commander-in-Chief, Cumberland advised on the conduct of the war in North America. He believed the war should be principally conducted by the colonies themselves and that regular troops should only play a supporting role. [41] He was influential in the appointment of Loudoun, another favorite and an officer who had served in Cumberland's army during the Jacobite rebellion. [44] Cumberland advised Loudoun to expose his officers and soldiers to scouting expeditions, so that they might "learn to beat the woods". [45] Cumberland approved the plan to develop light infantry in the British army. [41]

Invasion of Hanover Edit

In 1757, the war having spread to the continent, Cumberland was placed at the head of the Hanoverian Army of Observation, intended to defend Hanover (of which George II was Elector) from a French invasion. [46] At the Battle of Hastenbeck, near Hamelin, on 26 July 1757, Cumberland's army was defeated by the superior forces of d'Estrées. [26] Despite seemingly having the advantage towards the end of the battle, Cumberland's forces began to retreat. Within a short time discipline had collapsed, and Cumberland's army headed northwards in total disorder. Cumberland hoped that the Royal Navy might bring him reinforcements and supplies which would allow him to regroup and counterattack, but the British mounted an expedition to Rochefort instead, despite suggestions that it should be sent to aid Cumberland. [47]

By September 1757 Cumberland and his forces had retreated to the fortified town of Stade on the North Sea coast. The King gave him discretionary powers to negotiate a separate peace. [48] Hemmed in by French forces led by the Duc de Richelieu, Cumberland agreed to the Convention of Klosterzeven, under which his army was to be disbanded and much of Hanover occupied by French forces, at the Zeven Convent on 8 September 1757. [49]

On Cumberland's return to London, he was treated badly by his father, despite the fact that he had previously been given permission to negotiate such an agreement. When they met, George II remarked "Here is my son who has ruined me and disgraced himself". [50] In response, Cumberland resigned all the military and public offices he held and retired into private life. [51]

Cumberland's final years were lived out during the first years of the reign of his nephew, George III, who acceded to the throne on the death of William's father on 25 October 1760: Cumberland became a very influential advisor to the King and was instrumental in establishing the First Rockingham Ministry. [3] Cabinet meetings were held either at Cumberland Lodge, his home in Windsor, or at Upper Grosvenor Street, his house in London. [3] Cumberland never fully recovered from his wound at Dettingen, and was obese. [3] In August 1760, he suffered a stroke [52] and, on 31 October 1765, he died at his home on Upper Grosvenor Street in London at age 44. [3] He was buried beneath the floor of the nave of the Henry VII Lady Chapel in Westminster Abbey. [53] He died unmarried. [3]

Titles and styles Edit

  • 26 April 1721 – 27 July 1726: His Royal Highness Prince William [8]
  • 27 July 1726 – 31 October 1765: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cumberland [8]

The Duke's full style as proclaimed at his funeral by Garter King-of-Arms was: "the [. ] most High, most Mighty, and most Illustrious Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, and Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburgh, Marquess of Berkhamstead, Earl of Kennington, Viscount Trematon, Baron of the Isle of Alderney, Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter, and First and Principal Companion of the most Honourable Order of the Bath, third Son of His late most Excellent Majesty King George the Second". [54]

Honours Edit

Arms Edit

On 20 July 1725, as a grandchild of the sovereign, William was granted use of the arms of the realm, differenced by a label argent of five points, the centre point bearing a cross gules, the first, second, fourth and fifth each bearing a canton gules. On 30 August 1727, as a child of the sovereign, William's difference changed to a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing a cross gules. [58]

Prince William County, Virginia is named for him, [59] as well as Cumberland County, Maine, [60] Cumberland County, New Jersey [61] and Cumberland County, North Carolina. [62] Various other places in the American colonies were named after him, including the Cumberland River, [63] the Cumberland Gap [64] and the Cumberland Mountains. [65] In Britain, Cumberland Road in Kew and the Grade II listed Cumberland Gate into Kew Gardens are named after him. [66]

In 2005 he was selected by the BBC History Magazine as the 18th century's worst Briton. [67]

A memorial obelisk was erected to the Duke's military services in Windsor Great Park. It is inscribed "THIS OBELISK RAISED BY COMMAND OF KING GEORGE THE SECOND COMMEMORATES THE SERVICES OF HIS SON WILLIAM DUKE OF CUMBERLAND THE SUCCESS OF HIS ARMS AND THE GRATITUDE OF HIS FATHER THIS TABLET WAS INSCRIBED BY HIS MAJESTY KING WILLIAM THE FOURTH". According to a local park guide, the obelisk was originally inscribed "Culloden" but Queen Victoria had "Culloden" removed. [68]

An equestrian statue of the Duke was erected in London's Cavendish Square in 1770, but was removed in 1868 since by that time the 'butcher of Culloden' was generally reviled. The original plinth remained. [69]


"Butcher of Lyon,” former Nazi Gestapo chief, charged with war crimes

Klaus Barbie, the former Nazi Gestapo chief of German-occupied Lyon, France, goes on trial in Lyon more than four decades after the end of World War II. He was charged with 177 crimes against humanity.

As chief of Nazi Germany’s secret police in Lyon, Barbie sent 7,500 French Jews and French Resistance partisans to concentration camps, and executed some 4,000 others. Among other atrocities, Barbie personally tortured and executed many of his prisoners. In 1943, he captured Jean Moulin, the leader of the French Resistance, and had him slowly beaten to death. In 1944, Barbie rounded up 44 young Jewish children and their seven teachers hiding in a boarding house in Izieu and deported them to the Auschwitz extermination camp. Of the 51, only one teacher survived. In August 1944, as the Germans prepared to retreat from Lyon, he organized one last deportation train that took hundreds of people to the death camps.

Barbie returned to Germany, and at the end of the war burned off his SS identification tattoo and assumed a new identity. With former SS officers, he engaged in underground anti-communist activity and in June 1947 surrendered himself to the U.S. Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) after the Americans offered him money and protection in exchange for his intelligence services. Barbie worked as a U.S. agent in Germany for two years, and the Americans shielded him from French prosecutors trying to track him down. In 1949, Barbie and his family were smuggled by the Americans to South America.

Assuming the name of Klaus Altmann, Barbie settled in Bolivia and continued his work as a U.S. agent. He became a successful businessman and advised the military regimes of Bolivia. In 1971, the oppressive dictator Hugo Banzer Suarez came to power, and Barbie helped him set up brutal internment camps for his many political opponents. During his 32 years in Bolivia, Barbie also served as an officer in the Bolivian secret police, participated in drug-running schemes, and founded a rightist death squad. He regularly traveled to Europe, and even visited France, where he had been tried in absentia in 1952 and 1954 for his war crimes and sentenced to death.

In 1972, the Nazi hunters Serge Klarsfeld and Beatte Kunzel discovered Barbie’s whereabouts in Bolivia, but Banzer Suarez refused to extradite him to France. In the early 1980s, a liberal Bolivian regime came to power and agreed to extradite Barbie in exchange for French aid. On January 19, 1983, Barbie was arrested, and on February 7 he arrived in France. The statute of limitations had expired on his in-absentia convictions from the 1950s he would have to be tried again. The U.S. government formally apologized to France for its conduct in the Barbie case later that year.

Legal wrangling, especially between the groups representing his victims, delayed his trial for four years. Finally, on May 11, 1987, the 𠇋utcher of Lyon,” as he was known in France, went on trial for his crimes against humanity. In a courtroom twist unimaginable four decades earlier, Barbie was defended by three minority lawyers𠅊n Asian, an African, and an Arab—who made the dramatic case that the French and the Jews were as guilty of crimes against humanity as Barbie or any other Nazi. Barbie’s lawyers seemed more intent on putting France and Israel on trial than in proving their client’s innocence, and on July 4, 1987, he was found guilty. For his crimes, the 73-year-old Barbie was sentenced to spend the rest of his life in prison, France’s highest punishment. He died of cancer in a prison hospital in 1991.


George Butcher - History

History of Washington Bottom

The French were the first white people to see the Ohio River. About the year 1669 La Salle discovered the river and descended it to the site of Louisville. By this discovery, France claimed "the said River Ohio and all those which empty themselves into it and all lands on both sides even to the source of said rivers."

On the "Beautiful Ohio" and its tributaries are twelve thousand miles of waterways on which passed the canoes of the Indians, the white trader, the hunter, and the settler. The only large river flowing from East to West, it was a great highway to Western settlement, and for the early settlers the only means of transportation to the markets of the South and West.

This great river basin, one of the richest regions in the world, was in possession of the French for ninety years. England claimed it and in 1754 these rival claims brought on the French and Indian war which lasted for nine years. The English won the war and at the treaty of Paris in 1763 France ceded to England all of "New France" east of the Mississippi River.

Promises of Land

When this was begun men were slow to volunteer, and to encourage enlistment Governor Dinwiddee of Virginia set aside two hundred thousand acres of land on the Ohio to be given to the soldiers who enrolled for the war, one hundred thousand acres to be between the Little Kanawha and the Big Kanawha. A private soldier was to have four hundred acres, a captain nine thousand, and a field officer fifteen thousand acres.

It was fifty years after Governor Dinwiddee's proclamation before there was a permanent settlement on Washington Bottom. Within that half century the Ohio Valley was taken from France by England.

The American Revolution ended British rule in the Colonies and this republic was formed. Washington, a successful leader of the American people through all these troublesome years, will be known forever as "The Father of his Country." The backwoodsmen of Virginia and Pennsylvania drove the Indians from the Ohio Valley. One hundred and thirty years after the first settlement at Jamestown, the Virginia settlements extended from the Atlantic coast up the rivers to the foot of the Allegheny Mountains. From the mountains to the Ohio River was a great unbroken forest, and so far as was known, no white man had passed through it.

All in Augusta County

At this time, 1738, the colonial legislature of Virginia formed the county of Augusta. Its Western part included all of Virginia west of the mountains. No one knew its bounds. It was said to extend to the Western ocean or to the farthest bounds of the Dominion. In fact, it did extend from the Great Lakes on the north, to Tennessee on the south, and west to the Mississippi River.

In 1769, Botetourt county was formed from part of Augusta. Along the river it was from the Little Kanawha to the Great Kanawha. Lord Dunmore's grant to Washington for this bottom, dated December 15, 1772, is for 2,314 acres in Botetourt county.

The first county formed after the Declaration of Independence in 1776, was Monongalia. It extended to the Mississippi River. After the Revolutionary War in 1784, Harrison county was formed from the western part of Monongalia. Washington Bottom was in Harrison county.

In 1 798, Wood county was formed from the western part of Harrison county, and was then four times it's present size.

No Indians Here Then

When white people first came into this part of the Valley, no Indian tribe lived here. The tribal home of the Delaware nation was on the upper Muskingum. The Shawnees lived on the Scioto and the Great Hocking, and Miamis on the two rivers of that name. The Wyandottes occupied the country near the lakes. These were the tribes that for more than forty years made war on the frontier and resisted settlement to the bitter end.

These tribes had traditions that at one time they had lived on the Ohio, but war parties of the Iroquois Confederacy, or the Six Nations, came down the river in fleets of canoes and drove them out.

Though lockouts signaled their corning from one high point of the hills to another along the river, using smoke clouds by day and fires by night, these warning signals were flashed for great distances in a very short time, but these forays from the North -were so frequent and destructive that the tribes were compelled to leave the country bordering on this great "War-way" and seek a country not so accessible to the foe.

They still used this section of the valley, however, as a hunting and fishing ground, and in 1770 Washington found their hunting camps and cabins along the river. On Washington Bottom their village sites can still be seen in the fields along the river.

From the lower side of the B. D. Stout farm to the upper end of the Bottom, across the farms of Stout, O. M. Kyle, and the old Edelen farm, the high second bottom comes near the river and overlooks it. For the whole distance, about one and a half miles, there is much evidence of Indian occupation. Below Lock No. 19, on the farms of Edna Lewis, S, B. Tallman, and Francis Keene&mdashthe latter owned by the heirs of Mrs. Jennie Keene McDougle&mdashthere is every indication of long continued settlement.

On the slopes of the cultivated land the farmer's plow turns out a human skeleton, or an eroding gulley exposes another to view gruesome reminders of the time when these vanishing tribes occupied this land.

There are found many of the flint and stone weapons and implements of the warrior and the hunter, fragments of pottery, beads of cannel coal, and ornaments of stone. There are also stones supposed to have been used by medicine men for sorcery, or on ceremonial occasions and other unknown uses.

From the time when the Ohio River was first known to white men until Washington came to the valley a hundred years later, the country between the Little Kanawha and the Great Kanawha was an unknown region. It was Washington who gave us the first written description of the Bottom and the first mention of Blennerhassett Island.

Present Name Its First

It is pleasing to know that this Bottom was known to Washington by its first name. In a letter written to Thomas Freeman in 1785, he referred to it as the tract "commonly called and distinguished by the name of Washington Bottom."

After the Treaty of Paris there was a lull in the Indian Wars for several years. Washington and his fellow soldiers now prepared to locate their lands, but the King of England, George III, issued a proclamation on October 7, 1763, forbidding settlement. This proclamation said in part: "We do hereby forbid on pain of our displeasure, all our loving subjects from making any purchases or settlement whatever, or taking possession of any of the lands so reserved without our special leave or license."

In 1 768 Washington presented a petition to the Executive Council of Virginia setting forth the injustice in depriving the soldiers of these lands and praying that two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio be allotted for the division. The Council granted the petition and authorized the claimants to take the land in one tract or more, but not to exceed twenty surveys.

Captain William Crawford made the surveys and acted as Washington's agent for his Ohio lands until his tragic death in 1782. In that year he led an ill-prepared expedition against the Indians which ended in a disastrous retreat. He was captured by a party of Delawares and burned at the stake, where the village of Crawford is now located in Wyandotte county, Ohio.

WASHINGTON COMES HERE

In 1770 Washington came to the Ohio to look at the lands here. Accompanied by Dr. Craik, his friend and family physician, he came horseback to Fort Pitt. He described Pittsburgh as a collection of about twenty log cabins inhabited by Indian traders. He was joined here by Captain Crawford and a boy of Crawford's. At Fort Pitt, George Croghan, deputy Indian agent, found for him an interpreter, John Nicholson, and two Indians to act as guides.

On the 17th of October they started down the river and on the 27th came to Washington Bottom. Passing the Little Kanawha, they came to a creek on the west side and a cluster of islands afterwards. The creek is Davis' Creek, or Putnam's run, which puts into the Ohio nearly opposite the middle of Blennerhassett Island.

The cluster of Islands was the four which compose the Blennerhassett Island. Washington could not see this cluster until he reached the foot of the large island. Six or seven miles below the Kanawha he came to a creek putting in on the west side, which his Indian guides told him was the Little Hockhocking, which may be distinguished by having a large rock just at its mouth, on the north side. That rock is still there and for a long time was a support or abutment for the bridge over the Little Hocking.

Saw His Lands

Opposite to this creek he saw a bottom of "exceeding good land" and thought there might be two or three thousand acres of bottom and flat land together also that the lower end of the bottom is opposite to a small island of which little could be seen when the river was high.

This island is Newbury. Since Washington first saw it the floods in the Ohio have surged over Newbury for more than one hundred and fifty years and it is still a small uncultivated island.

He returned up the river from the Great Kanawha on November 8, left the canoe, and went afoot for the most of the day, and was making a close examination of the land both below and above the mouth of the Little Kanawha. He thought Washington Bottom was about seven miles long and very valuable if not liable to overflow, as some parts of it seemed to be low. He saw that the upper end of this bottom began at just such another place as the lower side. Up to date, 1932, no flood has reached any of the houses on Washington Bottom.

Probably but few residents of Washington Bottom have observed that the natural features at the upper end of this bottom are much the same as the lower part. At each place the high hills come abruptly to the river, each end is opposite an island, and at both a little run comes out of the hills.

Engages Surveyor

After Washington returned to Mount Vernon he prepared to have the land surveyed the next summer. Crawford was instructed to select the best land and get as much tillable land as possible.

In June, 1 771, Crawford made the survey of Washington Bottom. The beginning was on the Ohio, three or four miles below the Little Kanawha, opposite a small island by the side of a large one. Following his instructions, Crawford changed the course of his lines three or four times to get as much tillable land as possible.

Today his lines are easily traced, except those up the river, five miles and one hundred and twenty poles, as the floods in the Ohio during one hundred and fifty years have greatly changed the shore line.

Lord Dunmore's grant to Washington for 2,314 acres in Botetourt county is dated December 15, 1772. In that year Crawford wrote to Washington that he was having to work hard to keep squatters from building their cabins on his land, and the only way to prevent it was to hire men to live on it.

In March, 1774, Valentine Crawford entered into an agreement with Washington to make improvements on the bottom, and Novem- ber 14, a little more than a month after the great battle at Point Pleasant, Colonel Crawford wrote to Washington: "We have built you a house on your land opposite the mouth of the Hocking and cleared about eight acres, cutting off all the small timber. My brother Valentine Crawford says if you go on improving your lands next sum- mer, he would do it for you as usual." Later Crawford wrote that the Indians had burned the house.

INDIAN WARS START

When the next summer came the Revolutionary War had begun. The British encouraged their Indian allies to lay in wait for boats on the Ohio and to raid the frontier settlements. As one war party came in with American scalps, prisoners and war plunder, another was sent out thus keeping the border settlements in a continual state of alarm.

At this time the few settlers about the mouth of the Little Kanawha were compelled to leave their cabins and seek places of safety. The mouth of the Little Kanawha was a meeting place for Indian trails. Warriors' roads from the Scioto and Muskingum came to the site of Belpre. The Shawnee Trail went up the Kanawha from its mouth and clear across the state. The Inland Trail passed through the counties of Wood and Jackson, and on to the salt licks of the Great Kanawha. The River Trail was down the Ohio, passing through Washington Bottom and on to the mouth of the Scioto. Settlement near these "war paths" was extremely hazardous.

There were tomahawk claims here as early as 1 770 but no permanent settlement in Wood county until 1785.

This was a rich hunting ground. Bear, deer, and turkeys were found in great numbers and buffaloes were so plentiful that Colonel Brodhead, in command at Fort Pitt, in the fall of 1780 sent hunters to the Little Kanawha to kill buffaloes. The meat was boated up the river for use of his soldiers.

The first men to come into this forest land were hunters. They roamed the woods far beyond the cabins of the boldest settlers and often raced to the settlements and gave timely warning of the approach of war parties of Indians. They opened the way for settlement of the country.

Behind the hunter came the man with rifle and axe, who built a cabin and made a clearing. He lived mainly by hunting and when others settled near him, he felt crowded and abandoned his claim or sold it for whatever he could get and moved on into the wilderness. Of these men Lord Dunmore wrote to the Colonial Secretary in London: "They acquire no attachment to a place, but wandering about seems engrafted in their nature and it is a weakness incident to it, that they should imagine the lands further off are still better than those upon which they are already settled." These forest rovers were continually bringing stories to the settlements of better lands farther west and the more adventurous kept up a constant westward movement.

After the hunter and this restless settler, there came a very industrious class of men to take up settlement claims, clear the land and build permanent homes. These men were without means but preferred to face the dangers and hardships of life on the frontier, rather than become tenants on the eastern plantations which were worked mostly by slave labor.

The years from 1790 to 1795 were trying times for the few settlers here. The Indians would come down the Great Hocking river and in the rocky narrows below Washington Bottom, would fill their canoes with stones, sink them to the bottom of the river and leaving them there concealed, follow these trails to raid the settlements returning with scalps, prisoners and perhaps plunder from the cabin homes, they would raise the sunken canoes and return to their towns the same way they came.

Build Blockhouses

To have places of refuge and defense a number of forts and blockhouses were built on the Ohio along the border of Wood county. In 1785, Neal's Station was built near the south end of east street bridge at Parkersburg, and in 1792 Captain John James built a large blockhouse on Blennerhassett Island where about twenty families lived during the war. In 1785, Flinn's Station was built in an old Indian field of twenty acres, just above the mouth of Lee creek, and the same year a strong fort was built at Belleville.

On the North side, were Marietta's fort, "Campus Martius," and the Federal Fort Harmar. Belpre's fort, "Farmer's Castle," was about opposite the middle of Blennerhassett Island. There was a blockhouse above this fort and another a mile below. In 1792, two large blockhouses were built on the Newbury Bottom, opposite the lower end of Washington Bottom.

After a number of expeditions against the Indians had failed in spite of Washington's repeated caution to beware of ambuscade, he at last selected General Mad Anthony Wayne to lead a force against them. Wayne said: "I am the man you are looking for."

Wayne Opens Campaign

In 1793, Wayne began drilling his men at Mingo Bottom below Pittsburgh, and the next spring training them below Fort Washington (Cincinnati), avoiding the towns, he said, to keep his men away from whiskey. In the summer of 1 794, he marched into the Indian country, passed the scene of St. Clair's defeat and buried the remains of the soldiers massacred there two years before. When the Indians prepared to meet him, he suddenly changed his course and began cutting a road another way at last Chief Little Turtle called a council and told his warriors that the "Long Knives" were led by a chief who never slept and advised them to make peace. But they demanded to be led into battle.

On August 20, Wayne found them ambushed in fallen timber, blown down by a great tornado. At the first Indian fire, Wayne ordered his regulars to charge with bayonets into the tree tops. They routed out the savages before the latter had a chance to reload their guns and fired into their backs as they fled. The horsemen, galloping to the right and left, met the savages as they came out of the fallen timber. They were whipped in forty minutes, and before half of Wayne's men could get into the fight. Then came the crashing blow which ended the Indian War forever in this part of the Ohio Valley- the burning of their houses and the destruction of their stores of grain and growing crops.

Wayne Describes Indian Country

General Wayne, writing from the battlefield, said: "The very extensive and highly cultivated fields and gardens show the work of many hands. The margins of these beautiful rivers, the Miami of the lakes and the Auglaize, appear like one continuous village for a number of miles, both above and below this place, nor have I ever before beheld such immense fields of corn in any part of America from Canada to Florida."

Major Haskell, who was with the army, wrote to his friend at Belpre: "We have marched about sixty miles through the Indian villages and settlements and have destroyed several thousand acres of corn and all kinds of vegetables, burned their houses, tools, furniture, etc."

A hard winter came on. The Indians were without food or shelter and they suffered severely. Their few cattle died and even their dogs starved. They repeatedly sent emissaries to Wayne's camp, asking for peace. In the autumn of 1795, a treaty was made with the warring tribes. They agreed to bury the hatchet forever and to give up all prisoners held by them.

As the time for the treaty drew near, from all along the frontier, men tramped hundreds of miles through the forest to Wayne's camp to find relatives and friends who had been taken captive and to bring them home. There were joyful meetings and many sad disappointments for many of those carried away by the Indians were never heard from again.

In April, 1794, occurred the last raid in Wood county. Opposite the upper end of Blennerhassett Island, Mrs. Armstrong and two of her children were killed and scalped and three children were taken captive. These children were returned here after the treaty at Greeneville.

For forty-one long years there had been almost continuous warfare on the Virginia border, and in a sparsely settled country five thousand white people had been killed or carried into captivity.

Indian Stories

In 1792, or possibly a year later, a family of "squatters" had built a cabin on the upper end of Washington Bottom. A settler on the Belpre side, while on the river bank one evening, heard the dreaded war-whoop and looking across saw the Indians murder the family and burn their cabin. This family perished here, victims of savage cruelty, and their names are lost to history,

In 1792, Moses Hewitt left Fort Neal to look for his horse which had strayed away. According to Mr. Hewitt, he was following the River Trail and at about the lower end of Washington Bottom, he met three Indians. He turned and ran for the fort but they laid down their guns, overtook him, and made him captive.

On the way to their tribe, they one day tied his hands together and bound them to a bush about three feet from the ground, then, lashing his feet together, bound them to another sapling about the same distance from the ground, the two saplings being about five or six feet apart. Leaving Hewitt bound in this way, they left camp to hunt. By great effort he released himself, escaped, and got back to the settlement at Wolf Creek Mills on the Muskingum, nearly starved and almost exhausted, having crawled on his hands and knees the last half mile to the settlement.

He said that for eleven days he had lived on a bird, that he had caught, and roots dug from the ground. These Indians met another party and from their talk, a few words of which Hewitt understood, and their gestures, he said that they had intended to burn him at the stake when they reached their villages.

In 1 791, Joshua Fleehart, a famous backwoods hunter and scout, and Benoni Huriburt left the fort at Belpre to hunt at the mouth of Little Hocking. While passing the narrow's above the creek, they heard turkeys gobbling on the hillside a short distance from the river. Huriburt wanted to land and shoot the game, but Fleehart, detecting something wrong with the sound, said it was made by Indians and persuaded Huriburt to stay in the canoe.

When they reached the mouth of the creek, and seeing no signs of Indians, Huriburt left the canoe and went up the bank into the woods. In a short time Fleehart heard the crack of a rifle which he knew was not Huriburt's gun. Pushing the canoe to the other shore of the creek, he ran up the bank and hid himself where he could see if anyone came to the place where he had landed. He heard Huriburt's little dog trying to defend the body of his master, but he was killed with a tomahawk,

After watching for nearly an hour, so close that he could hear the Indians talk, Fleehart ran to the canoe, paddled across to near the Virginia shore and hurried back to the fort.

A party of men went down the next morning and found Huriburt dead and scalped and the body of the little dog beside him.

FARM SETTLEMENTS

The land on Washington Bottom owned by General George Washington was divided into two sections. The upper section being purchased from the ^Vashington heirs by George Lewis. This property was finally divided into a number of lovely farms. The first farm at the upper end was bought by Robert Edelen, who lived there for many years.

The early settlers built their homes on the rise back of the first or lower bottom, and as there were no springs on this land the river was the only water supply for household use and farm animals for some time. In the early days there was a road along the Bottom which followed the river bank. Later this road was discontinued and another was kept open from the upper end of the Bottom at Edeicn's to the Francis Lewis home near Lock nineteen. This road passed by the dwellings and is still open through the George Neal and Jonas Lewis farms.

The original Robert Edelen house, about 123 years old, still stands, although in a dilapidated condition. Many descendants of Robert Edelen are still living in Wood county. This property is now owned by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. The Edelen Cemetery, located near the old home, is the oldest one on Washington Bottom.

The second farm was owned by Mr. and Mrs. John H. Harwood, who with their family lived there for many years. The old home, which is about 123 years old, is located close to the bank where they have a wonderful view of the beautiful Ohio River.

It is still of interest to many of the relatives who like to come back and look over the old place. The house is now occupied by Milton Kyle, who owns this property.

In 1811, Col. Francis Keene bought two hundred acres of land and sold it to Lewis Neale, son of George and Sarah Lewis Neale. He built a brick residence, a mansion in its day, with brick burned on the farm.

In 1865 this farm was bought by D. B. McMechen and occupied by his son, J. T. McMechen (member of the State Legislature), who, with his family, meant much to this community. Mrs. Ruby McMechen Munchmeyer, the last member of this family, resides on Washington Bottom at present.

In 1921 this beautiful old home, situated on the Ohio River where one has a wonderful view of Blennerhassett Island, became the property of B. D. and 0. J. Stout. In remodeling the old house, the beautiful woodwork, which stands out as such a wonderful piece of workmanship, was preserved. The stone doorstep, moved from the Blennerhassett Mansion by Lewis Neale when he built the house and placed at the front, has been changed to the east side to preserve it. The old stone-walled well, used so much in those days, is still in use and has an endless supply of water.

The George Neale house was located just in front of what is known as the Captain E. B. Cooper place, now owned by C. R. Rector. In June, 1932, Mr. Rector found a well preserved door latch from the old Neale home. He also has a quaint old candle-stick from this home.

On the Rector farm stands the last slave cabin on Washington Bottom. It was the home of Ab Wilson, a slave owned by George Neale. Ab said that he grubbed out the first bush in the primeval forest on this farm to clear a space for the George Neale house. The first field cleared was between the house and river. This was set in fruit trees. The last apple tree was removed about forty years ago. 1892.

The old barn standing on the place has the original double threshing floor, and is fastened together with wooden pins.

The well-known home of Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Rector, located just below the Cooper-Rector place was bought by Mrs. Rector's father, Hon. John Stout (State Senator). Mrs. Rector and her brother. Captain B. D. Stout, are the last members of the family living on Washington Bottom.

Mr. Rector has in his possession the minutes of the first Quarterly Conference of the Washington Church, which held its one-hundredth anniversary in 1931. He expects to present this paper to the church after he has had it framed in the wood from the "old black walnut fence rails" which have weathered the storms on his farm for more than a hundred years.

The land owned by Jonas, William, and Frances Lewis has been cut up into a number of farms which are now owned by: Mrs. W. E. Tracewell, Mrs. H. H. Knight, Olvin McDougle, Mrs. Bernice Moss, and Will, Fred, and Philip Moellendick.

William Lewis was the first of the settlers to arrive at Washington Bottom. He moved into an old log cabin in the clearing made by the Crawfords, more than thirty years before. The cabin was probably built by a squatter, as Colonel Crawford wrote to Washington that the Indians had burned the first one built there.

Later we find the home of William Lewis, the house is now gone but the old chimney still stands. Oliver Perry Lewis was born in this house, August 29, 1850. His father, Francis Keene Lewis, born January 23, 1807, the grandfather of Miss Edna Lewis, was the first white child born on Washington Bottom. He died May 12, 1862, and is buried in the well-kept Lewis Cemetery near the old home which is now owned by Philip Moellendick. Miss Edna Lewis is the last one of the name owning a farm in this locality.

In the old barn which stands on the Oliver McDougle farm, on a big timber over the wide door, are the letters "F. K. L." (Francis Keene Lewis), deep and neatly cut with a carpenter's chisel. In possession of Olvin McDougle are two old reap hooks carved on the handle of one are the letters "F. K. L.," and on the other is "O. P. L." (Oliver Perry Lewis), no doubt the favorite reaping hooks of the owners.

Standing on the Philip Moellendick farm and in use at this time as a corn crib, is one of the first school houses built on Washington Bottom the old door casing showing it had been cut or hewn out. This building was never used as a free school.

The Mound Builders once occupied this section of the Ohio Valley. A mound, on the Philip Moellendick place near the middle of Washington Bottom, which had a number of oak trees growling on it, was destroyed to make a fill at Lock 19, on the Ohio River. Several human skeletons and some copper and stone ornaments were found in it. C. R. Rector, has, among his many Indian relics found on Washington Bottom, an amulet, or neck ornament, found in this mound. One can hardly imagine Indians roaming over this territory.

Lock 19 is located on the old Francis Lewis place. It was completed October 16, 1916. It is just below Blennerhassett Island, in one of the most beautiful spots on the Ohio River, It has an average of one thousand, four hundred and sixty (1460) lockages a year and gives employment to twelve men. D. M. Lawson, the present Lock Master, has filled this position for more than fourteen years.

Francis Keene Lewis inherited from the K.eene estate the lands that are the farms of Mrs. James Watson, George Watson, Miss Edna Lewis, and S. B. Tallman. Mr. Lewis was the largest land owner on Washington Bottom.

George Stout built the house where Mrs. James Watson now lives. It was on this farm, near the George Watson home, that the old grist mill stood, owned and run by Mr. Stout.

On the Oliver Perry Lewis farm, his wife, Mrs. Mary Lewis, aged eighty-six, and daughter, Edna Lewis, now reside. Much valuable land from this farm has caved into the river in recent years.

A very large and successful dairy is operated on the farm formerly owned by A. A. McDougle, now owned and operated by S. B. Tallman.

Another place of antiquity is the home now owned and occupied by Frank McDougle and family, Mrs. Alice Rector, and Mrs. Margaret Keever, heirs of Francis Marshall Keene. The home, one part of which is logs, with its quaint six-pane narrow doors, and unusual weather-boarding, stands as one among the oldest homes in Washington Community. It was on this farm that "Uncle Tom" and "Aunt Caroline" Beaver (colored) lived, Mr. Keene having given them three acres of land on the hill, on which they built their log cabin home.

Just below the McDougle farm, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Walker built a very nice brick home. They lived in this home for many years and were well-known for their hospitality. The house was destroyed by fire, thirty-eight years ago. Mrs. Rose Hickle's home now stands on the same site. The W. A. Boso home was also owned and occupied by Mr. Walker. Walker's Landing on the Ohio River was a noted shipping place for all the surrounding country and a receiving point as well. The Walker relatives like to come back and go over the old home place. The old barn was destroyed by fire in 1932.

The William Munchmeyer property, where he and his family now reside, was once a part of the A. A. McDougle tract. The large mound on this farm is believed to have been built by the Mound Builders.

The original William Coffer estate now embraces thirteen farms, owned and occupied by the present owners: Mrs, Mary McKibben, Charles Burd, James Butcher, Mrs. R. C. Massey, Alex Boso, J. M. Boso, Benjamin Sams, Edward Dugan, C. W. Butcher, Nickolas Morey, Pearl Miracle, Mrs. George Butcher, and James McKibben.

The old Coffer residence, known far and wide for the hospitality of its owners, Mr. and Mrs. George Coffer, familiarly called, "Aunt Jane" and "Uncle George," located on the Mrs. Mary McKibben farm, is in good repair and is now occupied by the present owner and her daughter, Mrs. Ben Butcher, and her family. Farther toward the river on the same farm are two Indian Mounds that are keeping their secrets for future generations to explore.

On the farm now owned by C. W. Butcher and on the site of the present residence, there used to be an old log cabin where old "Aunt Laster" (colored), held sway. She was a relic of pre-war days and famous for her cooking and hospitality, especially the former. Near this place, under a gigantic elm tree, a famous spring has quenched the thirst of man and beast with an inexhaustible supply of clear, cold water since time began.

In 1850, two brothers, Henry and Louis Munchmeyer, and a cousin, William Munchmeyer, bought 685 acres of land from Lewis Nea.le and Elizabeth Neale, a descendant of George Lewis. These farms are situated on the lower end of Washington Bottom, on the opposite side of the Ohio River from Newbury Bottom.

From the Munchmeyer, Bigelow, and Meldahl homes there is a very beautiful view of the Ohio River and Newbury Island.

This tract of 685 acres now has ten owners and that many dwelling houses. The present owners are: Misses Margaret and Lily Meldahl, Mrs. Eleanor Munchmeyer Bigelow, Powell Kruger, S. E. Spencer, B. Smith, Mrs. Clara Burd Smith, John Moore, Jeremiah Spencer, and Isaac Staats.

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which runs through Washington Bottom from north to south, built in 1883, enhances the value of these farms, for a railroad station was located on a farm of this tract. The station was named "Meldahl" for the family by that name.

Two houses on this land are owned and occupied by descendants of the original owners, one having the same name, Walter Louis Munchmeyer.

The Meldahl farm was the home of Captain Tony Meldahl, a popular Ohio River pilot.

Among the other nice farms on Washington Bottom, and that had deep wells, walled with rocks, using a windlass with the "Old Oaken Bucket," were the farms made from the Munchmeyer purchase.

About the year 1800, when the settlers felt secure from Indian raids and for several years after, great numbers of people from east of the mountains came seeking homes in Wood county.

At this time one of the greatest revivals in the history of the Methodist Church swept over the country, reaching the most remote settlements.

"The Groves were God's first Temples," and now again meetings were in the groves, the emigrants camped in their wagons, travelers halted there and thus camp meetings were inaugurated. The people in Wood county grouped themselves for religious worship, and as soon as the first settlers at Washington Bottom were well established in their new homes, they took an active part in this church work. The circuit organized covered a large territory, extending down the Ohio to Ravenswood, up the river to Pleasants county, and up the Little Kanawha River to Burning Springs.

The first meetings were held in the log cabins of the members or, a little later, in the widely separated log school houses. In time, the congregations grew in number and there was great need for church houses. The minutes of the fourth Quarterly Conference meeting in 1830, also for the meeting in 1831, are preserved.

In 1 830, the meeting was at Richard Lee's. Leroy Swomstadt was presiding elder and David Creel of Washington Bottom was secretary. "On motion of Bro. Powder, a committee of three (to-wit) Frederic Armine, John Low, and Abel Syoc, were appointed to form an estimate of the amount necessary to build a good meeting house in Muses Bottom," also "On motion of Bro. J. H. Powder, a committee of three (to-wit) Lewis Neale, William Neale, and George Neale, Jr., were appointed to ascertain the amount necessary to build a good and sufficient meeting house on Washington Bottom, and that they report to the next Quarterly Conference whether three-fourths of the amount necessary be raised and secured before commencing the work as required by the discipline."

The fourth Quarterly Conference was held at Washington Bottom, July 11, 1831, with Robert O. Spencer as presiding elder. A report in regard to building a church at Washington Bottom was made and accepted, two-thirds of the money being subscribed, they were authorized to commence the building.

Lewis Neale gave the church lot, the bricks were burned on his farm, and the house built. Daniel Bartlett (great-grandfather of Mrs. Gladys Bartlett Moellendick), a pioneer settler below the Little Kanawha, built the wood part of the church, and the old pews still staunch and solid after a hundred years are a fitting monument to his thorough workmanship.

Reece Wolfe was the first preacher in the new house. The following list of thirty-one preachers who followed after Rev. Wolfe may not be complete and their initials or first names are not remembered. Rev. Briscoe was on the circuit just before and during the War between the states. He lived in the parsonage, a log building, at Mineral Wells. After Briscoe came Fox, Williamson, Downtain, Hays Williams, Crooks, Cook, Burns, Shear, Lambert, Simpson, Bud Smith, Bush, Bowles, Tyree, Surgeon, Moss, Dowell, Slaughter, Johnson, Atkinson, Lambert, Roush, Coberly, King, Tolbert, Withrow, Harrison, McClung, Goff, and at this time the church is in a flourishing condition with Rev. J. D. Franklin, preacher.

All down through the years the church has been the home of the Sunday school, with many sincere superintendents: Benjamin Edelen, Reezin Barnes, J. W. Stout, W. P. Maddox, William Farrar, B. Amiss, Milton Kyle, A. T. McMurray, John Bartlett, George Ashby, George Coffer, E-lzie Colvin, Mrs, C. R. Rector, Mrs. D. M. Lawson, and Mrs. J. M. Boso.

The Sunday school is now the heart of the community and is far- reaching in its influence.

On February 25, 1854, Lewis Neale and Elizabeth, his wife, deeded the church lot, in size 60 by 80 feet, to George Neale, Jr., Thomas Maddox, and John Kincheloe, trustees for the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.

The consideration was their love and attachment and membership in said church and further consideration of one dollar, cash in hand paid.

On July 20, 1855, Lewis Neale sold his two-hundred-acre farm on Washington Bottom for ten thousand dollars to Alexander Hadden of Wheeling, Virginia, and early in April 1856, moved by steamboat to the Missouri River Valley in the state of Missouri.

In the years between 1840 and 1850, Enoch Rector, an early Baptist preacher, had frequent appointments to preach at Washington Bottom at the home of "Esq. Edelen" (Robert Edelen), and at the residence of John H. Harwood.

The church was used for summer school in 1866 and 1867 and many of our people still have happy memories of it.

The first "Select" school was located on the Meldahl Farm, near the southern boundary of Washington Bottom, in an old frame building which was bought of the Neale family.

The first teacher was Miss Nellie Lathrop who "boarded 'round," receiving a salary of $25 per month. She was succeeded by Miss Vesta Guthrie, from Newbury Bottom, who taught a number of years and who in turn, was followed by Mr. Williams all capable teachers.

Another "pay school" was located on what is now the George Burd property, and still another on the P. G. Moellendick farm.

There were two free schools existing as far back as 1867, one on the lower end of the bottom and one on the upper end. The first school house built on the upper end of Washington Bottom still stands on the Cooper-Rector place but is not in use as a school building. A larger one was built in 1 888. It is in good repair and a school is taught in it every year.

On the lower part of the Bottom there stands the third school house, a short distance from the location of the second which replaced the first one at the foot of the hill where there was an Indian Trail.

A number of students go to Parkersburg High School each year from the two schools on Washington Bottom, twenty having gone in 1931.

Four teachers who previously taught in the houses before mentioned make their homes on Washington Bottom now.

Among the students who have continued their education farther than high school are: Dr. B. Stout, Cincinnati Medical School, Cincinnati, Ohio Capt. B. D. Stout, Duff's College, Pittsburgh, Pa. Ada Cooper, Morris-Harvey College, Barboursville, W. Va. Clarence Boso and John Rector, Marshall College, Huntington, W. Va. Ben Rector, Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio Ruby McMechen, Richmond Female Seminary, Richmond, Va. Judge Walter McDougle, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va. Dr. Oscar Johnson, Louisville Medical School, Louisville, Ky. William H. Munchmeyer, Tri-State Normal College, Angola, Ind. Otto Munchmeyer, Cincinnati College of Chemistry, Cincinnati, Ohio Edelen Dye, Ralph Godwin, Elmer Harless, David Munchmeyer, Louise Moellendick, Carl Moellendick, and Helen Tallman all attended Parkersburg Business College, Parkersburg, W. Va. Adele Bigelow, Eleanor Bigelow, William Bigelow, Earl Cooper, Carroll McMechen, Louis Munchmeyer, and Robert Munchmeyer, West Virgina University, Morgantown, W. Va.

POST OFFICE

The first regular mail service for this territory was started on the Ohio River. Mail was carried overland every two weeks, from Pittsburgh to Wheeling and from there carried by mail boat to Cincinnati. Running about sixty miles a day, it took six days to make the trip to Cincinnati and twelve days to return.

These boats were built twenty-four feet long, with bulletproof cabins as a protection from the rifles of the Indians. They were manned by a steersman and four oarsmen.

General Rufus Putnam, of Marietta, arranged with Postmaster General Pickering for the first regular service, and service was started on the Ohio River. Stops were made at Marietta, Gallipolis, and Limestone (Marysville, Ky.).

It was ninety years after this beginning before there was a postoffice on Washington Bottom.

The first postoffice was known as Scott, West Virginia. Mr. Emil Meldahl was the first postmaster at this place. Two years later, Washington Postoffice was established with Miss Florence Cooper as the first postmistress.

The Washington Postoffice, cha.nged by the Government from Washington Bottom, is now located on a part of the George Neale section that is now owned by D. H. Harless, who is postmaster at this time, 1932.

There are seven family cemeteries on Washington Bottom, namely: The Edelen, The Neale, Jonas Lewis, Francis Lewis, Walker, Munchmeyer, and Mendahl.

WOMEN'S CLUB

Washington Women's Club was organized at the home of Mrs. W. J. Moellendick on December 2, 1914, the first rural club in Wood county. The following officers were elected: Mrs. C. R. Rector, President Mrs. W, L. Munchmeyer, Vice-President Miss Florence Chen- oweth. Secretary Mrs. Alice Rector, Treasurer. Other members were: Mrs. W. J. Moellendick, Mrs. P. G. Moellendick, Mrs. J. 0. Chenoweth, Mrs. H. C. Vaughn, Mrs. A. C. Cook, Mrs. W. E. Tracewell, Mrs. G. R. Bigelow, Mrs. W. P. Woofter, Mrs. J. W. Bartlett, and Mrs. Gladys (Bartlett) Moellendick.

Mrs. C. R. Rector served as president for eleven successive years. Since then there have been four presidents, Mrs. W. L. Munchmeyer, Mrs. Rosa Hickle, Mrs. W. A. Boso, and Mrs. Teresa Harless.

The club has cooperated with the church, the school, and the 4-H club, having been active from its organization until the present time. During the World War much sewing was done and at many times this club has contributed money that it made in different ways, contributing at one time a thousand dollars for improvement of Washington Bottom roads. A play, "Clubbing the Husbands," was successfully staged May 14, 1920, being the first one given by a West Virginia Farm Women's Club.

By meeting regularly once a month, the ladies of the community keep in touch with one another socially.

Only two members are deceased, one being a charter member.

THE 4-H CLUB

County agent, Robert Buckhannon, organized the Washington Workers' 4-H Club, July 1, 1915. There were only a few members at first but the number gradually increased. The older members naturally have more leadership, so they always help the newer members to get started right.

This little group planted itself firmly on the foundation af all 4-H work, Luke 2:52, and it grew and prospered, developing character, ambition, the desire for knowledge, and especially leadership. These qualities, in conjunction with their 4-H development, resulted in placing the Washington Workers first in the state in 1918, which championship they held for three successive years.

This seventeen-year-old club has had many members charted who have earned 4-H pins, a number chosen as "All Stars," and has won a great many club prizes and individual prizes. One member won a three-hundred-dollar scholarship to West Virginia University and several members won one-hundred-dollar scholarships. Later, several won trips to Springfield, Massachusetts.

From "The Washington Workers' Club" several outstanding members of the state have come. Good club members make good citizens. The influence of this little group is already seen, and will continue to be seen in the future.

Many pieces of old Colonial furniture and household articles, that have served and beautified the homes of other generations, are still to be seen in a number of homes on Washington Bottom. Such pieces are clocks, desks, chairs, sofas, tables, stands, bedsteads, corner cup boards, and dishes. These have a family history which endears them to their owners.

Some homes display both braided and hooked rugs, fabricated in soft tones that "grow lovely growing old." Old counter-panes, dresses, shawls, laces, and samplers have been preserved. Many families have in their possession interesting collections of Indian relics.

A knowledge and appreciation of rare things exists among the progressive inhabitants of Washington Bottom community.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In writing this history the committee was permitted to use C. R. Rector's notes of Washington Bottom history.

The aerial mosaic, reproduced in the center of this book, was furnished by the courtesy of the Aerial Surveys, Inc.


A Victorian Butcher's Shop

Step inside a butcher’s shop in the 1800s and what would you find?

Well, according to Thomas Miller in 1852, first you would have to step over the gutter before the door, which literally ‘ran with blood’ (Victorian London). And be mindful of all those carcasses hanging on the outside of the shop! Photographs from the time (Mary Evans) show the astonishing displays of plucked fowl and the sawn-in-half bodies of pigs and cows pierced on hooks all over the outer shop walls. It was certainly not for the squeamish!

But of course, back in Victorian times, these displays would be a common sight. Unlike nowadays, High Streets of all sizes in the 1800s had butcher’s shops, and often more than one. Many would specialise, and a pork butchers was especially popular due to the fact that almost every part of the pig could be utilised (BBC).

Most shops had also been in the same family for decades, if not centuries, earning their reputations. Businesses would shout about where they sourced their meat, and were proud to sell local produce, the animals coming from nearby farms. At Christmas time, huge, tantalising displays were created to entice customers, some so magnificent that they were reported on in the local papers, and these reports would include where the meat had been sourced from and any prizes it might have attained. Indeed, by the end of the century when meat imports were on the rise, butchers would display signs saying ‘No foreign meat’. Having said that, one damning estimate from the 1860s alleged that ‘up to one fifth of all meat purchased at a butcher’s shop was from animals that were diseased’. (BBC)

Nevertheless, meat consumption was on the rise. Despite many desperately poor people being unable to afford meat and living mainly on bread, scraps, and tea, statistics show that annual meat consumption per head had risen from 87 pounds in the 1830s to 132 pounds by the turn of the century (BBC). Butchers were busy people, and according to Thomas Miller, these ‘knights of the cleaver’ were doing well for themselves, with some even ‘keep[ing] his country-house' (Victorian London). Even so, it was a gruesome job. In London at the start of the century, farms from all over the country drove their animals to Smithfield market every September and October where they were sold and slaughtered - Dickens describes the horrific scene in Oliver Twist, if you’re intrigued (Vic Sanborn). Butchers were slaughter men, and would kill the animals at their own premises then salt and store the meat in the cellar beneath the shop.

In a time of no refrigerators, salting and smoking meat was a good method of preservation. Yet, Victorians liked their meat a little aged, and sausages, for example, were hung in the windows for much longer than they are nowadays. Apparently, this made them taste better! By the end of the century, ice boxes began to be used.

Inside the shop, you would see a butcher with his ‘bare muscular arms’ (Thomas Miller). You might find yourself a little confused as this butcher conversed with his assistant, for butchers were famed for their backslang. This was a language made up of reversed words (‘boy’ would be ‘yob’, for example) which enabled butcher and assistant to talk without the customer understanding. Why? So they might charge different prices! It was known for butchers to price their meat according to what they thought they could get away with (BBC). Despite this rather salubrious trait, butchers tried to be clean. Fresh sawdust was put down each morning to soak up the spills of blood and cleared away at the end of the day. By the start of the twentieth century at least, butcher’s shop walls were tiled for better hygiene, and chopping boards and knives were scrubbed and washed at the end of each day. (1900s.org)

I hope I have managed to show some of these fascinating insights in my book, The Butcher’s Wife. And if you would like to read more about Victorian butchers, check out the bibliography.


So, what turned out to be a snippet of oral history, handed around and down my branch of Martin family, which is vaguely related to the Crisp family (William Crisp is apparently my Half Great Great Great Uncle!), it turns out to be loaded with facts… albeit somewhat jumbled.

There’s still a few loose ends – death certificates will, or newspaper articles might, reveal details of whether the measles story is true. The identity of Selina was also generation out, and the wrong bit of family went ‘up North’ – it was all in the story.

For me, it proves that those little oral snippets, or those scribbled notes, are just as important as those official records. In fact, they are often more interesting. Using official records to help untangle these family stories is the trick…. regardless of how long you take to start work on them!


Watch the video: Judy Boucher -Cant Be With You Tonight lyrics