Ham Goes to Space - History

Ham Goes to Space - History


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November 11 , 1966 Gemini 12

On January 31, 1961, Ham, a chipanzee, was sent into space in the first success of the Mercury Program. The flight reached an altitude of 157 miles. During the flight, Ham performed a series of simple tasks.


What Happened To The Animals That Were Sent Into Space?

A lot of animals have been to space, including dogs, monkeys, tortoises, and even a cat. But while some had a rather harrowing experience, others survived their missions and had a relatively normal life back on Earth.

The first animal to orbit Earth was Laika the dog on November 3, 1957. The launch by the Soviet Union came as a bit of a surprise, but everything looked like it had gone smoothly. While the Soviets admitted she would not return to Earth, they suggested Laika had survived in space for up to a week before dying peacefully.

However, while Laika did indeed successfully orbit Earth, it was revealed shortly after the launch that her demise had been rather more harrowing. She had died from overheating and panic no more than seven hours after the mission began when a fan on board the spacecraft failed. Her capsule continued to orbit Earth 2,570 times before burning up in the atmosphere on April 4, 1958, five months after blast off.

It’s not all bad news for animals in space, though. Before Laika, the Soviets sent a pair of dogs called Tsygan and Dezik, on July 22, 1951, which became the first canines in space. They hopped into space on sub-orbit, rather than a full orbit, but they successfully returned to Earth that same day and became the first animals to survive a spaceflight.

Tsygan went on to live happily on Earth, being adopted by a Soviet physicist called Anatoli Blagonravov. It wasn't such good news for Dezik, who made another trip to sub-orbit in September 1951 with a dog named Lisa. Neither survived.

Laika the dog. NASA

The Soviets were pretty keen on their canine astronauts, sending other dogs into space including Veterok and Ugolyok (main image), and Belka and Strelka in August 1960. Joining the latter two on their day-long flight were a rabbit, 42 mice, and two rats.

All of these animals safely returned to Earth, becoming the first to orbit the planet and return alive. Strelka later went on to have puppies with a male dog, and one – named Pushinka – was given to President Kennedy in 1961 by Nikita Khrushchev. Pushinka had four puppies with one of Kennedy’s dogs, which the President jokingly called pupniks.

While the Soviets were sending dogs to space, the US sent monkeys. The first primate to go to space was the rhesus macaque Albert II on June 14, 1949, who flew on top of a V2 rocket. He was anesthetized for the flight, though, and died on impact after re-entering the atmosphere.

On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter IRBM missile was used to launch another rhesus monkey named Able into suborbit, along with a squirrel monkey named Miss Baker. They were in the nose cone of the missile, and spent nine minutes in space before both returning to Earth alive.

The squirrel monkey Miss Baker. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

Able sadly died just four days later due to a bad reaction to anesthesia when scientists tried to remove an infected medical electrode. Baker, however, went on to live until 1984, and is now buried at the United States Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

One of the most famous animals to successfully return from space was Ham the Chimp, who flew on a Mercury capsule on January 31, 1961. He survived his flight to sub-orbit, and paved the way for Alan Shepard to become the first American human in space three months later.

Ham lived out his days at the National Zoological Park in Washington DC and, later, the North Carolina Zoo. He died in 1983 at the age of 25 and was buried at the Museum of Space History in Alamogordo, New Mexico. His bones were removed before his burial, and are kept at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington DC for their scientific value.

Ham the Chimp. NASA


AARC Tuesday Nets are on AA6BT Repeater

Until further notice the AARC Tuesday Noontime Net is on 146.115+, PL 100.0 (AA6BT repeater) instead of simplex frequency 146.445

Attendance is free and registration is now open at https://www.qsotodayhamexpo.com
with early bird prize incentives for registering by July 24, 2020.
This ARRL–sanctioned hamfest will let you:

  • Learn from a packed line-up of 70+ world renowned ham radio speakers such as Ward Silver, N0AX, on Grounding and Bonding Glen Johnson, W0GJ, on DXpeditions, and John Portune, W6NBC, on building slot antennas for HOA.
  • Listen to the amazing keynote by Dr. Scott Wright, K0MD, on COVID-19: Amateur radio’s impact on problem solving to create a global response to the pandemic.
  • Learn from a packed line-up of 70+ world renowned ham radio speakers on a variety of topics for those new to the hobby as well as experienced radio amateurs.
  • Hear from 6 outstanding youth, our hobby’s future leaders.
  • See demos of the latest ham radio equipment ask questions and engage with Exhibitors through video, audio, or chat.
  • Share ideas and network with your fellow hams throughout the Expo.

This platform simulates a full convention experience with an exhibit hall and exhibit booths staffed by live attendants, speaker auditorium, lobby, and lounges.

AARC Frequencies

    • 146.445, Tactical 1
    • 146.505, Tactical 2
    • 146.550, Tactical 3
    • 147.465, Tactical 4
    • 146.490, Events and NASA-TV retransmission
    • 145.250-, 123.0, Command NA6MF
    • 223.540, Packet 220, Primary
    • 145.750, Packet 2M, Secondary

AARC Continuing Meetings

AARC meets every third Thursday monthly at AARC Shack, talk-in 146.445 simplex.

    The Ames Amateur Radio Club (AARC) provides a matrix of related services, technologies, people, skills, equipment, opportunities, and resources to those interested in, or desiring to benefit from, radio based communications technologies for educational, public service, emergency communications, and recreational purposes. Members of the club are available to guide newcomers, and enjoy sharing their knowledge about amateur radio.

Club members also support a wide variety of HF, VHF, and UHF communications modes for educational and recreational purposes as well as provide voluntary public service and emergency communications support to Ames, Santa Clara County, and special events occurring on the Moffett Field complex.


Spam as Culinary Tradition

During WWII, Spam's reach made its way to England and the countries of the Asian Pacific, where rationing and the presence of American troops saw the meat become a menu staple. "Having the sort of food that can survive in the tropical heat and be kept on a shelf for weeks and months was a huge boon," says food historian Rachel Laudan, who writes extensively about food politics and how empires affect local cuisines. Laudan, who grew up in postwar Britain, has written about how deep-fried Spam fritters "turned up regularly for school lunches… one more in the series of horrors produced by the school cooks" in England.

By the end of WWII — and with thousands of American GIs returning home who would refuse to eat it — Spam saw its role start to slowly shift away from convenient protein source to "sometimes-food" side dish. "When you look at the core of America after the war, Spam really made an evolution away from being that 'center of the plate' meal option," Behne says. "Mom used to make it and put cloves in the Spam and use it as the center of the plate. The evolution definitely started in the '60s where it became more of an ingredient: It was used for sandwiches and as an ingredient in eggs."

But while the core of America pushed Spam to the side of their plates, the canned meat became a culinary sensation in much of the Asian Pacific and Hawaii. Asia's present-day fondness for Spam stemmed directly from WWII and following conflicts, during which an entire generation grew up with Spam. In Hawaii, Spam's proliferance happened less due to the presence of American GIs and more to the government restrictions unfairly placed on the local population. "Unlike the mainland, they couldn't intern all the Japanese [in Hawaii]," says Laudan, who spent years living in Hawaii and published The Food of Paradise: Hawaii's Culinary Heritage in 1996. "The economy would have collapsed."

Instead, the United States placed sanctions on Hawaiian residents, restricting the deep-sea fishing industries that were mainly run by Japanese-Americans. Because islanders were no longer allowed to fish, Laudan says, "one of the important sources of protein for the islands vanished." Spam — along with other canned luncheon meats and sardines — took its place.

Simultaneously across the Pacific, residents of Korea and Japan "were on the point of starvation," Laudan says. "The cans of Spam coming in were an absolute godsend in those terrible situations at the end of World War II." In Korea, where American forces returned during the Korean War, budae jjigae (translation: "Army Stew") would emerge as a wartime staple: Restaurant owner Ho Gi-suk claims to have invented the dish by simmering Spam and other canned meat smuggled from a U.S. Army base with broth and spices. Today, Korea is the world's second-largest consumer of Spam (after only the United States), where it's seen as a luxury item: Spam is a popular gift for the Lunar New Year, packaged in gift boxes along with cooking oil and seasonings.

In the decades after WWI, as native Koreans and Japanese migrated to Hawaii, food culture in the islands became even more intertwined, combining the culinary preferences of natives and the Asian and Anglo diasporas. Japanese immigrants to Hawaii are credited with inventing Spam musubi, a Hawaiian version of onigiri that binds a cooked slab of Spam to rice with a piece of nori. (Touted for its portability, it's still widely available in Hawaiian convenience stores as an easy grab-and-go lunch or snack.) Diner staple loco moco, a dish featuring rice topped with a hamburger patty, fried egg, and brown gravy often features Spam as an additional protein. And the meat pops up in everything from fried rice to omelets to saimin (the Hawaiian noodle soup dish).

"Instead of saying, 'Why is it so odd that people in Hawaii or people in Korea or people in the Philippines eat Spam and like it,' the question is: Why did it become such an object of deep scorn?" Laudan asks. "Perhaps it was because [mainland Americans] saw themselves as unloading Spam on 'those people over there.'"


Where The Action Is

Each amateur radio operator has preferences. Many concentrate their activities in one of the following categories.

    and "rag chewing".
  • Public service (ARES, Skywarn, Elmers, outdoor events).
  • Contesting.
  • Experimenting (antennas, modes, equipment modifying, kit building, etc).

Those that have the inclination and the available time . end up doing a little bit of everything!

Exciting Times Ahead

I've been a ham since 1973 with VE2DPE as call sign. I have seen many turning points in this great hobby.

The coming years are going to be significant for two main reasons.

Fortunately, the detrimental effects the slowly weakening sunspot cycle 24 will have on propagation over the coming years will be compensated by the much improved performance of SDRs!

Efficient antennas will become a must!



Chimpanzee, name unknown, propelled for crash test
Photo: Courtesy of US Air Force

The chimpanzee was adequately secured against flailing, but helmet and clothing proved unsatisfactory the flying suit tore and exposed the subject to serious burning from windblast. Roughly forty per cent of the body was covered with second and third degree burns.

-Project Abrupt Deceleration,
Weekly Test Status Report,
16 September and 26 October 1954, 8 February 1955.
NASA History site

Chimpanzees captured from their homelands in Africa were injured or killed in tests conducted by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) as part of the Air & Space Research program.

After the first successful manned space flights, the Air Force leased out most of its surviving chimpanzees for use in biomedical experiments rather than sending them to sanctuaries. Many of these unfortunate chimpanzees ended up in the hands of Fred Coulston, a toxicologist.

Chimpanzees: tools for the air & space race


Chimpanzee, name unknown, strapped for &ldquotraining&rdquo
Photo: Courtesy of US Air Force

Meet some of the Air Force survivors: Dana and Hanzie.

Read more information about conditions at the Coulston Foundation.

In the early 1950s, the U.S. Air Force secured the capture of 65 young and infant chimpanzees in Africa and used them to establish an aeronautical research facility at Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo, New Mexico.

America&rsquos perception of itself as the world&rsquos preeminent scientific and technical leader was shaken in October 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik into orbit. Our deep fear of the possibility of Soviet scientific supremacy was quickly reinforced by the November launch of Sputnik II carrying the dog, Laika.

The United States accelerated its space program and began consuming increasing numbers of nonhuman animals for space flight research. Mice, guinea pigs, and several species of monkeys were used in experiments prior to human space flight.

Chimpanzees had been used in military flight experiments starting in the early 1950s. As the space race heated up, they were used increasingly as test subjects for space flight research. (1)

Chimpanzees as crash test dummies

The height of the space research program involving chimpanzees lasted from the early 1950s to the early 1960s. During that time, chimpanzees were used to test the forces of gravity, the effects of high-speed movement, and other conditions anticipated in space travel.

Strapped into small, pitch-dark metal capsules, they were spun, jettisoned, and catapulted on track courses and in decompression chambers. Some were killed, and others were severely maimed, although the exact numbers were not documented.

Unfortunately, the headrest failed even before the sled reached supersonic speed, the helmet failed in turn, and the head was yanked so violently as to break the subject&rsquos neck.

&mdashProject Abrupt Deceleration,
Weekly Test Status Report,
16 September and 26 October 1954, 8 February 1955.
NASA History site

The &ldquoSled&rdquo

NASA scientists devised a decompression &ldquosled&rdquo known as Sonic Wind 1, constructed by Northrop Aircraft.

The first run with a living chimpanzee took place on January 28, 1954. The sled was jettisoned down a long track and designed to accelerate to speeds of 400 miles per hour before coming to an abrupt halt. (2) A sudden stop at such high speeds caused the chimpanzee&rsquos brain to literally smash against the skull, resulting in massive trauma and death. (3)

Researchers also sought to study the effects of windblast at increasingly high speeds. According to a USAF status report, they devised a windshield that:

&hellip [C]ould be jettisoned explosively at a given point during the run. Unfortunately, the jettisonable windshield inflicted quite a bit of damage on chimpanzees, causing the death of more than one, before this method finally proved its value. (4)

Smash speeds increase

In 1955 a new, higher speed sled, Sonic Wind 2, was devised specifically to test windblast. Sled velocities on this device reached up to 1,350 feet per second, encountering wind pressures in excess of 2,000 pounds per square foot.

According to NASA&rsquos historical review of these early aeronautical experiments on chimpanzees:

The first full-scale experiment came on 13 April [1955], with very moderate acceleration and deceleration but a peak velocity of 1,945 feet per second (about mach 1.7). The chimpanzee subject wore a special flying suit devised by the Aeromedical Field Laboratory and a helmet developed by Protection, Inc. Unfortunately the headrest failed even before the sled reached supersonic speed, the helmet failed in turn, and the head was yanked so violently as to break the subject&rsquos neck. There was some burned tissue due to windblast, but chiefly the run underscored the danger that exists from flailing if the subject is not adequately secured. (5)

The next run at China Lake was held on 27 June [1955], and reached 1,905 feet per second, with a duration of two seconds at roughly mach 1.7. Maximum windblast was about 3,500 pounds per square foot. The test again resulted in the subject&rsquos death, but this time it occurred twenty-four hours after the run, and the cause was different. The chimpanzee was adequately secured against flailing, but helmet and clothing proved unsatisfactory the flying suit tore and exposed the subject to serious burning from windblast. Roughly forty per cent of the body was covered with second and third degree burns. The chimpanzee at least fared better than certain guinea pigs attached to the same test sled by the Bio-Acoustics Branch of Wright Air Development Center&rsquos Aero Medical Laboratory. Two guinea pigs were attached merely with nylon netting, and the third was placed in a metal container whose largest opening measured one inch by two inches. The can itself stood up through the test, but all three guinea pigs vanished into thin air. (6)

Project Whoosh: ejection at supersonic speeds

Another phase of the research, Project Whoosh, was established to evaluate escape from high-speed aircraft. It is described on NASA&rsquos website:

The project involved ejection of chimpanzee subjects, from a specially-designed Cherokee missile. The missile was to be taken aloft by a modified B-29 bomber and then accelerated to supersonic speeds before the anesthetized subject, strapped into an open ejection seat, was shot out from the missile&rsquos interior.

It was cancelled beyond any doubt soon after the final Holloman test. Not one of the animals ejected at supersonic speeds survived, for in each case there were equipment difficulties (with parachute system or ejection seat) that led to death of the subject and overshadowed any possible evidence of injury through supersonic windblast, tumbling, and deceleration. Nevertheless, the project was not a total loss. Even the failures were instructive, and the work performed on Whoosh led directly to further ejection experiments at the Supersonic Military Air Research Track, Hurricane Mesa, Utah. (7)

Ham & Enos: unwilling &ldquopioneers&rdquo

Many chimpanzees were trained for a mission into space, although only two were known to be sent into flight. Air Force personnel used straight jackets, neck rings, and four-limb restraint on the young chimpanzees to force them to comply with increasing periods in the coffin-like capsules and used painful electric shocks to train them to operate the control panels.

Ultimately, two chimpanzees, Ham and Enos, were sent into publicly celebrated space flights on separate missions several months apart. Ham, whose name was an acronym for Holloman Aero Med, was captured in July 1957 from the French Cameroons, West Africa, shortly after his birth. He was brought to Holloman in 1959.

On January 31, 1961, Ham was sent up in a Mercury Redstone rocket. Technical problems during his descent led the capsule to overheat and veer off course. After his capsule plunged into the Atlantic Ocean, 60 miles off course from the recovery ship, water began seeping into the capsule. Fortunately, Ham was successfully rescued.

Ham&rsquos flight achieved international acclaim. News photos showed a seemingly beaming chimpanzee among his human peers at NASA. A demonstration was planned to show the press how much Ham enjoyed his capsule. However, as the cameras rolled, four adult men could not get Ham to go back into the capsule, even though he had been taught that he would be given electric shocks if he disobeyed.

For those who understand chimpanzee behavior, Ham&rsquos so-called &ldquosmile&rdquo for the cameras was a fear grimace, which looks similar to a human smile. Famed primatologist Jane Goodall observed that Ham&rsquos expression was the &ldquomost extreme fear that I&rsquove seen on any chimpanzee.&rdquo (8)

Ham was retired from research in 1963 and transferred to the National Zoo in Washington D.C., where he lived alone. (9) In 1980, he was moved to the North Carolina Zoo. He died three years later at the age of 26, approximately half the expected lifetime for a captive chimpanzee.

Enos: shocking intelligence

Five months after Ham&rsquos flight, on November 29, 1961, five-year-old Enos orbited the earth twice aboard a Mercury Atlas rocket.

Enos&rsquo flight was terminated prematurely due to an equipment malfunction that caused him to receive repeated electric shocks. Enos&rsquo intelligence prevailed over the technical machinery. He successfully performed his tasks despite the fact that he was repeatedly shocked for operating the control panel correctly.

Despite his young age, Enos died of dysentery within 11 months of his flight. His death was not officially considered to be related to his years as a subject in space research.

Learn more by ordering One Small Step: The Story of the Space Chimps DVD from our online store.

A final betrayal: delivery to toxicologist Fred Coulston

By the 1960s, the U.S. Air Force stopped using chimpanzees. Rather than sending them to sanctuaries to protect them from further experimentation, the Air Force leased many out to biomedical laboratories. Most were leased to Fred Coulston, who promoted their use for testing chemicals and drugs. He eventually founded the Coulston Foundation, a facility that would become infamous for its poor conditions and repeated violations of the Animal Welfare Act.

Some Air Force chimpanzees were left to languish in confinement at Holloman Air Force Base. Born free 20 years earlier in the African jungle, these chimpanzees would spend the next several decades in the confinement of laboratory cages. A lucky few were rescued by animal protection groups and given permanent sanctuary.

Sources

Documentary: &ldquoOne Small Step: The Story of the Space Chimps&rdquo produced by Kristin Davy and D. James Cassidy in conjunction with The Documentary Institute at the University of Florida, 2002.

(3) Documentary: &ldquoOne Small Step: The Story of the Space Chimps&rdquo produced by Kristin Davy and D. James Cassidy in conjunction with The Documentary Institute at the University of Florida, 2002.

(4) Project Abrupt Deceleration, Weekly Test Status Report, 16 September and 26 October 1954, 8 February 1955. NASA History site

(8) Jane Goodall in One Small Step: The Story of the Space Chimps (David Cassidy and Kristen Davy in conjunction with The Documentary Institute at the University of Florida, 2002), documentary.

(9) Documentary: &ldquoOne Small Step: The Story of the Space Chimps&rdquo produced by Kristin Davy and D. James Cassidy in conjunction with The Documentary Institute at the University of Florida, 2002.


Able and Baker

Baker, a squirrel monkey, perches on a model of the Jupiter missile that launched her into space on a sub-orbital flight, along with a rhesus monkey named Able, on May 28, 1959 - fifty years ago. Fruit fly larva and sea urchin eggs also accompanied Able and Baker, who both survived the flight Able, though, died four days after the flight from a reaction to the anesthetic given during surgery to remove an electrode. Baker died at age 27 in 1984 and is buried in Huntsville, Alabama - visitors sometimes leave bananas on her grave.

Able, seated on her couch, is on display in the National Air and Space Museum's National Mall building in the Apollo to the Moon gallery. And she makes an appearance in Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian (though played by a capuchin monkey), where she gets to slap Ben Stiller. And if you happen to be in Washington on June 10th, Able stars in an Ask An Expert presentation, Night at the Museum - the Real Stuff. National Geographic has a great portfolio of space monkeys, including both Able and Baker, and also Ham the astrochimp.


Ham the chimp

In the early years of the U.S./Soviet space race American scientist decided that final flight test before manned mission must be conducted with chimpanzees. Since 1948 US sent more than dozen monkeys to space where they tested influences of that harsh environment on a living animal, because they did not known if human pilot can operate complex tasks inside his capsule. Weightlessness, extreme G-forces, radiation, all those factors made the scientist to start thinking about planning mission with a chimpanzee.

From the testing facility with 40 chimpanzees they selected 8 best candidates and started them on a heavy training regiment. Their goal was to launch them in space and observe while they perform various tasks (flipping switches around them). From the 8 candidates, Ham was selected as the most suitable. He was trained to press the buttons in front of his chair every time he saw blue blinking light. Also, he was suited with special space suit that had the same properties as the upcoming maiden flight of astronaut Alan Shepard. After more than a year of training Ham was chosen for this crucial mission, which was named MR-2.

On January 31, 1961 Ham the Chimp was launched from the Cape Canaveral space center on a 17 minutes long suborbital flight. During that time he reached the altitude of 157 miles, speed of 5857 mhp, and had six minutes of weightlessness. Ham preformed perfectly, responding to the blue lights as intended. During his return capsule suffered loss of atmosphere but his special space suit saved his life. Success of this mission paved the way for the successful launch of the Alan Shepard’s first American human manned mission on May 5, 1961. At the end of 1961 another rocket went to space, this time carrying chimp called Enos. He successfully orbited around the earth.

Ham the Chimp became instant celebrity when he returned from his space mission. He appeared on several US television programs, TV shows and several documentary films following events of his mission. He spent rest of his life in Washington, D.C National Zoo and North Carolina Zoo until his death on January 19, 1983.


The Space Monkey Timeline

Animal flight testing didn't begin with the Space Age. It actually started about a decade earlier. On June 11, 1948, a V-2 Blossom was launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico carrying the first monkey astronaut, Albert I, a rhesus monkey. He flew to over 63 km (39 miles) but died of suffocation during the flight, an unsung hero of animal astronauts. Three days later, a second V-2 flight carrying a live Air Force Aeromedical Laboratory monkey, Albert II, got up to 83 miles (technically making him the first monkey in space). Unfortunately, he died when his "craft" crash-landed on re-entry.

The third V2 monkey flight, carrying Albert III launched on September 16, 1949. He died when his rocket exploded at 35,000 feet. On December 12, 1949, the last V-2 monkey flight was launched at White Sands. Albert IV, attached to monitoring instruments, made a successful flight, reaching 130.6 km., with no ill effects on Albert IV. Unfortunately, he also died on impact.

Other missile tests took place with animals, too. Yorick, a monkey, and 11 mouse crewmates were recovered after an Aerobee missile flight up to 236,000 feet at Holloman Air Force Base in southern New Mexico. Yorick enjoyed a bit of fame as the press covered his ability to live through a space flight. The next May, two Philippine monkeys, Patricia and Mike, were enclosed in an Aerobee. Researchers placed Patricia in a seated position while her partner Mike was prone, to test the differences during rapid acceleration. Keeping the primates company were two white mice, Mildred and Albert. They rode to space inside a slowly rotating drum. Fired 36 miles up at a speed of 2,000 mph, the two monkeys were the first primates to reach such a high altitude. The capsule was recovered safely by descending with a parachute. Both monkeys moved to the both at the National Zoological Park in Washington, DC and eventually died of natural causes, Patricia two years later and Mike in 1967. There's no record of how Mildred and Albert did.


Death

After his successful first flight into space, Gagarin never again was sent into space. Instead, he helped train future cosmonauts. On March 27, 1968, Gagarin was test-piloting a MiG-15 fighter jet when the plane plummeted to the ground, killing Gagarin instantly at the age of 34.

For decades, people speculated about how Gagarin, an experienced pilot, could safely fly to space and back but die during a routine flight. Some thought he was drunk. Others believed that Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev wanted Gagarin dead because he was jealous of the cosmonaut's fame.

However, in June 2013, fellow cosmonaut, Alexey Leonov (the first man to conduct a spacewalk), revealed that the accident was caused by a Sukhoi fighter jet that had been flying too low. Traveling at supersonic speed, the jet flew perilously close to Gagarin's MiG, likely overturning the MiG with its backwash and sending Gagarin's jet into a deep spiral.


Watch the video: Η Ιστορία της NASA 2-4