May 2, 2013 Day 103 of the Fifth Year - History

May 2, 2013 Day 103 of the Fifth Year - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

10:15AM The Presidents announces the nomination of Penny Pritzker to be Secretary of Commerce and Mike Froman to be US Trade Representative

10:45AM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House en route Joint Base Andrews
South Lawn
Open Press (Final Gather 10:20AM – North Doors of the Palm Room)

11:00AM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews en route Mexico City, Mexico
Out-of-Town Travel Pool Coverage (Call Time 9:30AM – Virginia Gate, Joint Base Andrews)
CDT
2:15PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Mexico City, Mexico
Benito Juarez International Airport, Mexico City, Mexico
Open Press

3:05PM THE PRESIDENT and President Peña Nieto of Mexico hold a bilateral meeting
Palacio Nacional-Salon de Recepciones
Travel Pool Spray at the Top

4:10PM THE PRESIDENT and President Peña Nieto of Mexico hold a press conference
Palacio Nacional, Treasury Room
Open to Pre-Credentialed Media

5:35PM THE PRESIDENT meets and greets with United States Embassy personnel
InterContinental Presidente Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico
Closed Press

7:15PM THE PRESIDENT and President Peña Nieto of Mexico meet for a working dinner
Los Pinos, Mexico City, Mexico
Closed Press


These World War II Propaganda Posters Rallied the Home Front

When Britain and France went to war with Germany in 1939, Americans were divided over whether to join the war effort. It wouldn&apost be until the surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 that the United States would be thrust into World War II. Once U.S. troops were sent to the front lines, hundreds of artists were put to work to create posters that would rally support on the home front.

Citizens were invited to purchase war bonds and take on factory jobs to support production needs for the military. As men were sent to battlefields, women were asked to branch out and take on jobs as riveters, welders and electricians.

To preserve resources for the war effort, posters championed carpooling to save on gas, warned against wasting food and urged people to collect scrap metal to recycle into military materials. In the spring of 1942, rationing programs were implemented that set limits on everyday purchases.

While many posters touted positive patriotic messages, some tapped fear to rally support for the Allied side and caution against leaking information to spies. "Loose lips sink ships" became a famous saying. Meanwhile, graphic images depicted a blood-thirsty Adolph Hitler and racist imagery of Japanese people with sinister, exaggerated features.

Today, the posters a offer a glimpse into the nation&aposs climate during World War II and how propaganda was used to link the home front to the front lines. 


The Boston Massacre

On the cold, snowy night of March 5, 1770, a mob of American colonists gathers at the Customs House in Boston and begins taunting the British soldiers guarding the building. The protesters, who called themselves Patriots, were protesting the occupation of their city by British troops, who were sent to Boston in 1768 to enforce unpopular taxation measures passed by a British parliament that lacked American representation.

British Captain Thomas Preston, the commanding officer at the Customs House, ordered his men to fix their bayonets and join the guard outside the building. The colonists responded by throwing snowballs and other objects at the British regulars, and Private Hugh Montgomery was hit, leading him to discharge his rifle at the crowd. The other soldiers began firing a moment later, and when the smoke cleared, five colonists were dead or dying𠅌rispus Attucks, Patrick Carr, Samuel Gray, Samuel Maverick and James Caldwell𠅊nd three more were injured. Although it is unclear whether Crispus Attucks, an African American, was the first to fall as is commonly believed, the deaths of the five men are regarded by some historians as the first fatalities in the American Revolutionary War.

The British soldiers were put on trial, and patriots John Adams and Josiah Quincy agreed to defend the soldiers in a show of support of the colonial justice system. When the trial ended in December 1770, two British soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter and had their thumbs branded with an “M” for murder as punishment.

The Sons of Liberty, a Patriot group formed in 1765 to oppose the Stamp Act, advertised the 𠇋oston Massacre” as a battle for American liberty and just cause for the removal of British troops from Boston. Patriot Paul Revere made a provocative engraving of the incident, depicting the British soldiers lining up like an organized army to suppress an idealized representation of the colonist uprising. Copies of the engraving were distributed throughout the colonies and helped reinforce negative American sentiments about British rule.

In April 1775, the American Revolution began when British troops from Boston skirmished with American militiamen at the battles of Lexington and Concord. The British troops were under orders to capture Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock in Lexington and to confiscate the Patriot arsenal at Concord. Neither missions were accomplished because of Paul Revere and William Dawes, who rode ahead of the British, warning Adams and Hancock and rousing the Patriot minutemen. 

Eleven months later, in March 1776, British forces had to evacuate Boston following American General George Washington’s successful placement of fortifications and cannons on Dorchester Heights. This bloodless liberation of Boston brought an end to the hated eight-year British occupation of the city. For the victory, General Washington, commander of the Continental Army, was presented with the first medal ever awarded by the Continental Congress. It would be more than five years before the Revolutionary War came to an end with British General Charles Cornwallis’ surrender to Washington at Yorktown, Virginia.


List of American Horror Story episodes

American Horror Story is an American anthology horror television series created and produced by Ryan Murphy and Brad Falchuk, which premiered on October 5, 2011 on FX. Each season is conceived as a self-contained miniseries, following a different set of characters and settings, and a storyline with its own "beginning, middle, and end". [1]

As of November 13, 2019, [update] 103 episodes of American Horror Story have aired, concluding the ninth season. The series has been renewed for a tenth season, set for release in 2021. [2] [3] In January 2020, the series was renewed for three more seasons, up to its thirteenth. [4]

Every season has been nominated for multiple Primetime Emmy Awards. The first six seasons have won, with Roanoke winning one, Murder House, Asylum and Hotel each winning two, Coven winning four, and Freak Show winning ten.


Academic Censure-Probation-Dismissal-Academic Alert

All undergraduate students are expected to maintain a minimum of a 2.000 cumulative grade point average (GPA) in all Marquette coursework. However, there are additional requirements that may lead to academic censure, as described below.

Marquette defines academic censure in one of three categories: Academic Probation (two types): College Probation and Reinstated on Probation Academic Dismissal (two types): Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons and Required to Withdraw for Academic Misconduct and the College Academic Alert. These censure statuses are maintained permanently on the student’s academic record however, only three appear permanently on Marquette University's official transcript as follows:

  1. Reinstated on Probation
  2. Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons
  3. Required to Withdraw for Academic Misconduct

Satisfactory Academic Progress: While not an academic censure issue per se, the financial aid regulation requiring the university to evaluate the qualitative (GPA) satisfactory academic progress of each student is also discussed in this policy, as by federal regulations, it must be aligned with the university academic dismissal policy. The satisfactory academic progress notation is maintained permanently on the student’s record however, does not appear on Marquette’s official transcript. In addition, satisfactory academic progress does not impact or reverse the academic censure notations described above. Refer to the Complete Financial Aid Satisfactory Academic Progress Policy on the OSFA website for additional information on SAP.

Academic Probation-College Probation

Students are placed on college academic probation according to the policies of their individual colleges (see the respective college sections of the Undergraduate bulletin for details). This probation status does not impact financial aid eligibility. Likewise, financial aid eligibility does not impact or reverse academic probation.

Academic Dismissal-Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons (RWAR)

The Office of the Registrar (OTR) and the Office of Student Financial Aid (OSFA) monitor cumulative GPAs.

At the conclusion of each spring term, students who do not meet the GPA requirements listed below are academically dismissed by their college (coded as RWAR by OTR) and students' records are also coded to reflect their failure to maintain satisfactory academic progress (coded as SAP by OSFA):

  1. Students having attempted 24 or fewer credit hours must maintain a cumulative GPA of 1.500 or higher.
  2. Students having attempted more than 24 credit hours must maintain a cumulative GPA of 2.000 or higher.

Please Note: Students who were subject to RWAR/SAP at the conclusion of a spring term and reinstated to the University, who fail to meet the terms of the academic plan established by their college will be subject to RWAR/SAP in any subsequent term (fall, spring, or summer). In addition, a student who fails to meet the GPA requirements listed above in a fall or summer term and who elects not to return to the University will be subject to RWAR/SAP in the subsequent spring term.

  1. Those students who have been granted an official Medical Withdrawal by the university are not subject to RWAR for the term in which the Medical Withdrawal is approved. They are, however, subject to SAP.
  2. Those students who withdraw from their first term at Marquette are not subject to RWAR in that term. They are, however, subject to SAP.
  3. Those students who choose the audit (AU) option in all classes are not subject to RWAR or SAP for that term. However, if these students withdraw and/or receive a grade of AUA in that same term, they are subject to RWAR and SAP.
  4. Those students enrolled in audit-only programs are not subject to RWAR or SAP. However, if these students withdraw from the audit-only program or classes and/or receive a grade of AUA in that same term, they are subject to RWAR and SAP for that term.
  5. When a grade change is submitted on behalf of students to the Office of the Registrar within one week of the RWAR/SAP assignment, the Academic Censure determination is reviewed and the RWAR/SAP removed, if applicable. However, it is highly recommended that students submit the Academic Censure Appeal by the deadline, because if the grade change request is denied, there is no extension to the deadline for these cases.
  6. The Undergraduate Academic Censure Committee communicates RWAR decisions via email and via FedEx letters to the students' home address OSFA communicates SAP via Marquette email. As per the university email policy, students are responsible for monitoring their Marquette email at all times.
  7. Students coded with RWAR who are not reinstated are dropped from any classes in which they are subsequently registered.

RWAR/SAP Appeal process

The RWAR/SAP is appealed on one form, as per the instructions contained in the RWAR/SAP email(s) and letters received at the end of the term. This form is used whether students wish to appeal to their original college or to any other college.

The Academic Censure/Satisfactory Academic Progress Appeal form is posted on the Marquette Central academic forms website and includes all of the required information students must submit to have an appeal reviewed. The Undergraduate Academic Censure Committee reviews all appeals, taking into consideration the unique circumstances of students. as documented at the time of the appeal. That is, documentation of a unique circumstance may not be submitted after the deadline to appeal. The decision of the committee is final.

When appeals are approved:

  1. Students are 'Reinstated on Probation' and the college designs academic plans for these students, outlining how they are to regain satisfactory academic and degree progress standing and become financial aid eligible.
  2. The plan must be measurable and ensure that students are able to meet Marquette's SAP standards by a specific point in time. Plans are to include courses to be taken, expected grades and a time frame to complete the outlined objectives.
  3. The plan is monitored and evaluated at the end of each term (fall, spring, and summer).
  4. Students who are on multiple term plans and are satisfying their plans at the end of each term, are not subject to RWAR or SAP, regardless of the GPA.
  5. Students who do not fulfill all the academic obligations as outlined in their plan, are again coded as RWAR and SAP and subject to all provisions of this policy.

Students who appeal their RWAR/SAP decision from the spring term for reinstatement to the immediately-following summer term and are denied are also denied for reinstatement to the subsequent fall term. An amended appeal may be filed only if issues preventing students from being academically successful were raised in the initial appeal and no diagnosis or other documentation to support the claim was available to be included with that initial appeal. The amended appeal requires documentation that these same issues are now being addressed and supporting statements from the professional with whom students have been working indicating a readiness to return to Marquette by the fall term. The specific deadline for this amended appeal is communicated to students in the initial denial notification they receive via Marquette email.

Students who appeal their RWAR/SAP decision from the spring term for reinstatement to the subsequent fall term and are denied, may exercise the option of submitting an amended appeal. This amended appeal may be filed only if issues preventing students from being academically successful were raised in the initial appeal and no diagnosis or other documentation to support the claim was available to be included with that initial appeal. The amended appeal requires documentation that these same issues are now being addressed and supporting statements from the professional with whom students have been working indicating a readiness to return to Marquette by the fall term. The specific deadline for this amended appeal is communicated to students in the initial denial notification they receive via Marquette email.

If an appeal is denied, students have the option to present compelling evidence in writing to the Vice Provost for Academic Affairs and only if they believe the Academic Censure Committee did not follow the procedures as outlined in this policy when making the decision. This evidence must outline in detail the improper procedure used when the denial decision was made.

Academic Dismissal-Academic Misconduct

Dismissal for academic misconduct (RWAM) is determined per the Academic Integrity policy found in the Undergraduate bulletin and at the Academic Integrity website. Once this determination has been made, students are dismissed from the university. This action results in ineligibility to register at Marquette. Reinstatement criteria for students who are dismissed, if applicable, are outlined in the dismissal notice students receive. If students are allowed to return to the university, a permanent notation of ‘Reinstated to the University’ appears on the students' academic record and Marquette’s official transcript.

College Academic Alert (CAA)

Students who do not fall under the university RWAR or SAP criteria as outlined above, however fail to make progress in the particular college or major, as outlined by the college in this bulletin and/or the college handbook, are barred from future registration by a CAA registration hold. Students subject to CAA are dropped from any enrolled future term classes.

The Academic Censure/Satisfactory Academic Progress Appeal form is posted on the Marquette Central academic forms website and includes all of the required information students must submit to have an appeal reviewed. The Undergraduate Academic Censure Committee reviews all appeals, taking into consideration the unique circumstances of students, as documented at the time of the appeal. That is, documentation of a unique circumstance may not be submitted after the deadline to appeal. The decision of the committee is final.

  1. The CAA hold is assigned by the college office and is specific to the individual college’s degree progress policies (see the respective college section of the Undergraduate bulletin). The college communicates this information via the Marquette email. As per the university email policy, students are responsible for monitoring their Marquette email at all times.
  2. Regardless of the college that places students on College Academic Alert, the CAA applies to all colleges therefore, students who wish to be considered for reinstatement to any college, must submit an appeal.
  3. Students may appeal the CAA to their original college or any other college by using the same Academic Censure/Satisfactory Academic Progress Appeal form on the Marquette Central academic forms website.
  4. When the Undergraduate Academic Censure Committee approves the appeal, the CAA hold is removed, and students are notified via Marquette email.

Students who appeal their CAA decision from the spring term for reinstatement to the immediately-following summer term and are denied are also denied for reinstatement to the subsequent fall term. An amended appeal may be filed only if issues preventing students from being academically successful were raised in the initial appeal and no diagnosis or other documentation to support the claim was available to be included with that initial appeal. The amended appeal requires documentation that these same issues are now being addressed and supporting statements from the professional with whom students have been working indicating a readiness to return to Marquette by the fall term. The specific deadline for this amended appeal is communicated to students in the initial denial notification they receive via Marquette email.

Students who appeal their CAA decision from the spring term for reinstatement to the subsequent fall term and are denied, may exercise the option of submitting an amended appeal. This amended appeal may be filed only if issues preventing students from being academically successful were raised in the initial appeal and no diagnosis or other documentation to support the claim was available to be included with that initial appeal. The amended appeal requires documentation that these same issues are now being addressed and supporting statements from the professional with whom students have been working indicating a readiness to return to Marquette by the fall term. The specific deadline for this amended appeal is communicated to students in the initial denial notification they receive via Marquette email.

If an appeal is denied, students have the option to present compelling evidence in writing to the Vice Provost for Academic Affairs and only if they believe the Academic Censure Committee did not follow the procedures as outlined in this policy when making the decision. This evidence must outline in detail the improper procedure used when the denial decision was made.


America's 10 largest employers

Walmart is the largest American employer, with a workforce of nearly 2.2 million people. However, because of its international reach, only 1.3 million of those were employed in the United States.

Each of America's 10 largest employers has a workforce of more than 300,000 people. Some of the companies, such as Walmart and McDonald's, offer mostly low-wage jobs. Others, such as IBM and General Electric, are leading technological innovators and their workforces are more highly skilled and better compensated. 24/7 Wall St. reviewed the 10 American companies that, combined, employed more than 5.6 million workers.

Several of the nation's largest employers are retailers. Most famously, Wal-Mart Stores, which owns Walmart and Sam's Club, employs roughly 2.2 million people worldwide and is the largest private employer in the United States. Target and Kroger are also among America's largest employers and may still add to their workforces. Target recently has begun expanding into Canada, while Kroger recently purchased rival Harris Teeter.

Like large retailers, fast-food chains also require plenty of low-skilled labor in order to operate their stores and expand. The successful launch of the Doritos Locos taco at Yum! Brands' Taco Bell led the company to estimate it had added 15,000 jobs. McDonald's has employed a large number of low-skilled workers for so long that such jobs are often derided as "McJobs" for their low pay and limited career opportunities.

But not all of America's largest employers have a low-skilled workforce. Technology companies such as IBM and Hewlett-Packard conduct research and offer a wide range of products and services, requiring them to hire high-skilled workers. IBM has been the nation's leader in patent approvals for the past 20 years, likely due to both the size and talent of its workforce.

Conglomerates such as General Electric also employ hundreds of thousands of workers. When GE recently announced its plans to expand its software capabilities, it also stated it would be hiring thousands of engineers.

Several of the nation's largest employers have developed reputations for being unfriendly toward unions. In 2011, when it appeared a Target store in Valley Stream, New York, might unionize, the company voiced its opposition to unions. Around that time, a company-produced video emerged, warning employees about joining unions. By contrast, Kroger and UPS have largely unionized workforces.

Based on a screening of S&P 500 companies, 24/7 Wall St. determined the 10 largest employers based on the total number of full-time and part-time workers at the end of each company's most-recent fiscal year. Year-over-year changes in stock price are as of August 20, 2013.

These are America's largest employers:

> Total employees: 305,000
> Industry: Conglomerate
> 1-yr. stock price change: +13.0%

General Electric Co. (GE) is one of the few U.S.-based public companies that employed more than 300,000 full and part-time workers. Of these employees, the company noted, roughly 134,000 worked in the United States. If not for its shedding of NBC Universal, these figures would have been higher. GE's former subsidiary, now owned by Comcast, had 14,000 employees as of 2010. GE has long been a major source of technological innovation, from incandescent lighting to the refrigerator and the jet engine. The company is pushing heavily into software and plans to hire thousands of engineers to improve the software capabilities of its machinery.

> Total employees: 331,800
> Industry: Technology
> 1-yr. stock price change: +32.4%

Hewlett-Packard Co. (HPQ) had 331,800 workers worldwide as of last October. The company, however, is in the midst of massive job cuts. In May 2012, HP announced it would cut 29,000 employees by fiscal 2014, both through voluntary retirement and job cuts. As of March, the company still had 15,000 more jobs that needed to be cut to reach these goals, according to ComputerWorld. In late 2012, the company also wrote down its Autonomy acquisition by $8.8 billion after it was determined Autonomy had lied about its finances.

> Total employees: 340,000
> Industry: Home improvement
> 1-yr. stock price change: +31.0%

As of February, Home Depot Inc. (HD) employed roughly 340,000 people. Of these, however, just 21,000 were salaried, with the vast majority working either hourly or only on a temporary basis. The company is active throughout North America, but it is mostly located in the United States. The home improvement retailer had just under 2,000 stores in the U.S., 180 in Canada and 100 in Mexico. After his appointment in 2007, current CEO Frank Blake removed previous pay limits so the company could hire knowledgeable specialists. He also improved employee benefits as part of his efforts to produce better customer service.

> Total employees: 343,000
> Industry: Grocery stores
> 1-yr. stock price change: +71.5%

Kroger Co. (KR) employed roughly 343,000 full-time and part-time workers as of February. The majority of Kroger employees "are covered by collective bargaining agreements negotiated with local unions affiliated with one of several different international unions," according to the company. The company's track record of working with unions has earned it accolades over the years. In 2011, it acquired several Schnucks grocery stores in the Memphis area. One local official noted, "Kroger is a very good, pro-labor, pro-union chain, … if it has to be bought up by somebody, I'm glad its them." In July, Kroger announced it was buying supermarket chain Harris Teeter, although its new acquisition is expected to stay union-free.

> Total employees: 361,000
> Industry: Retail
> 1-yr. stock price change: +5.9%

Target Corp. (TGT) employed 361,000 full-time, part-time and seasonal, workers as of February 2013. Like many retailers, however, Target's hiring swells during the holiday season. Between Thanksgiving and the end of the year, Target had approximately 409,000 workers. Most, if not nearly all, of these workers were likely employed in the United States. Target has no presence outside of the U.S. and Canada, and it only began operating stores in Canada in March 2013. Target has been criticized in recent years for its opposition to unions. In June 2011, one executive told The Wall Street Journal that "it has always been our goal to have a culture where our team members don't want or need union representation." Earlier that month, Gawker Media had released an internal video, apparently shown to new Target employees, that discouraged them from joining unions.

5. United Parcel Service

> Total employees: 399,000
> Industry: Delivery and freight
> 1-yr. stock price change: +12.9%

United Parcel Service Inc. (UPS) had about 323,000 employees in the United States alone at the end of 2012, not including any seasonal hires. The majority of these workers were employed through contracts the company has with the Teamsters and other unions. The company agreed to a new, five-year national master agreement with the Teamsters, which went into effect August 1. The new contract guarantees rising salaries over the life of the deal, as well as the addition of new full-time jobs. Much of the company's workforce, however, is still employed only part time. At the end of last year, 46% of the company's 328,000 hourly employees, as well as 36% of management personnel, were employed part time.

> Total employees: 434,246
> Industry: Technology
> 1-yr. stock price change: -8.3%

International Business Machines Corp (IBM) employed more than 434,000 individuals at the end of 2012. The company has one of the nation's highest-skilled workforces. For 20 straight years, the company has received more patents from the U.S. Patent Office than any other business, with nearly 6,500 awarded in 2012 alone. Additionally, five IBM employees have won a Nobel Prize. But despite the company's research accomplishments, IBM is still sensitive to its bottom line. Earlier this year the company cut more than 3,300 jobs in the United States. and Canada. In August, with falling demand for new servers, the company announced it would have to furlough much of its U.S. hardware team for a week to cut costs.

> Total employees: 440,000
> Industry: Fast food
> 1-yr. stock price change: +9.3%

McDonald's Corp. (MCD) had a total of 440,000 employees at the end of 2012. In recent decades, fairly or not, McDonald's has become associated with poor quality jobs, known as "McJobs." Merriam-Webster defines a McJob as "a low-paying job that requires little skill and provides little opportunity for advancement." McDonald's has been in the news recently for offering a budget calculator that employees can use to balance their income and expenses. The company provided a sample monthly budget that makes unrealistic assumptions such as employees working two jobs, paying just $600 per month in rent and somehow finding health care insurance that costs just $20 per month. In 2011, a McDonald's recruiting drive led to 62,000 new jobs.

> Total employees: 523,000
> Industry: Fast food
> 1-yr. stock price change: +9.9%

Yum! Brands Inc. (YUM) — owner of KFC, Taco Bell and Pizza Hut — had more than half a million employees at the end of 2012. The vast majority of its workforce were hourly workers. Although the company does not break out its employee counts by country, many of its employees are based abroad. At the end of last year, less than half of the Yum! Brand stores, franchised or company-owned, were located in the United States. Additionally, 4,547 of the 7,578 company-owned locations were in China, where KFC is the largest fast-food chain. The company's success in the U.S. is still a major driver of job growth. Taco Bell has added 15,000 jobs due to the success of its Doritos Locos taco.

> Total employees: 2.2 million
> Industry: Retail
> 1-yr. stock price change: +1.7%

At the end of the 2013 fiscal year, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. (WMT) employed nearly 2.2 million employees around the globe. Of these, more than 1.3 million worked in the United States, meaning the retail giant's U.S. workforce is larger than the global workforce of any other American business. Walmart de México y Centroamérica, which is the largest private employer in Mexico, had nearly a quarter of a million employees in Central America as of April. Recently, the Washington, D.C., city council passed a bill requiring large retailers to pay their workers at least $12.50 an hour (well above the city's minimum wage). This has reignited the debate over whether Walmart provides an adequate wage for its workers.

24/7 Wall St. is a USA TODAY content partner offering financial news and commentary. Its content is produced independently of USA TODAY.


Pancake Day

Pancake Day, or Shrove Tuesday, is the traditional feast day before the start of Lent on Ash Wednesday. Lent – the 40 days leading up to Easter – was traditionally a time of fasting and on Shrove Tuesday, Anglo-Saxon Christians went to confession and were “shriven” (absolved from their sins). A bell would be rung to call people to confession. This came to be called the “Pancake Bell” and is still rung today.

Shrove Tuesday always falls 47 days before Easter Sunday, so the date varies from year to year and falls between February 3 and March 9. In 2021 Shrove Tuesday will fall on February 16th.

Shrove Tuesday was the last opportunity to use up eggs and fats before embarking on the Lenten fast and pancakes are the perfect way of using up these ingredients.

A pancake is a thin, flat cake, made of batter and fried in a frying pan. A traditional English pancake is very thin and is served immediately. Golden syrup or lemon juice and caster sugar are the usual toppings for pancakes.

The pancake has a very long history and featured in cookery books as far back as 1439. The tradition of tossing or flipping them is almost as old: “And every man and maide doe take their turne, And tosse their Pancakes up for feare they burne.” (Pasquil’s Palin, 1619).

The ingredients for pancakes can be seen to symbolise four points of significance at this time of year:
Eggs

To make 8 or so pancakes you will need 8oz plain flour, 2 large eggs, 1 pint milk, salt.

Mix all together and whisk well. Leave to stand for 30 minutes. Heat a little oil in a frying pan, pour in enough batter to cover the base of the pan and let it cook until the base of the pancake has browned. Then shake the pan to loosen the pancake and flip the pancake over to brown the other side.

In the UK, pancake races form an important part of the Shrove Tuesday celebrations – an opportunity for large numbers of people, often in fancy dress, to race down streets tossing pancakes. The object of the race is to get to the finishing line first, carrying a frying pan with a cooked pancake in it and flipping the pancake as you run.

The most famous pancake race takes place at Olney in Buckinghamshire. According to tradition, in 1445 a woman of Olney heard the shriving bell while she was making pancakes and ran to the church in her apron, still clutching her frying pan. The Olney pancake race is now world famous. Competitors have to be local housewives and they must wear an apron and a hat or scarf.

Olney Pancake Race. Author: Robin Myerscough. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

Each contestant has a frying pan containing a hot pancake. She must toss it three times during the race. The first woman to complete the course and arrive at the church, serve her pancake to the bellringer and be kissed by him, is the winner.

At Westminster School in London, the annual Pancake Grease is held. A verger from Westminster Abbey leads a procession of boys into the playground where the school cook tosses a huge pancake over a five-metre high bar. The boys then race to grab a portion of the pancake and the one who ends up with the largest piece receives a cash bonus from the Dean.

In Scarborough, Yorkshire, on Shrove Tuesday, everyone assembles on the promenade to skip. Long ropes are stretched across the road and there maybe be ten or more people skipping on one rope. The origins of this custom is not known but skipping was once a magical game, associated with the sowing and spouting of seeds which may have been played on barrows (burial mounds) during the Middle Ages.

Many towns throughout England used to hold traditional Shrove Tuesday football (‘Mob Football’) games dating back as far back as the 12th century. The practice mostly died out with the passing of the 1835 Highways Act which banned the playing of football on public highways, but a number of towns have managed to maintain the tradition to the present day including Alnwick in Northumberland, Ashbourne in Derbyshire (called the Royal Shrovetide Football Match), Atherstone in Warwickshire, Sedgefield (called the Ball Game) in County Durham, and St Columb Major (called Hurling the Silver Ball) in Cornwall.


Carbon Dioxide Through Time

In the late 1950s, Roger Revelle, an American oceanographer based at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California began to ring the alarm bells over the amount of CO2 being emitted into the atmosphere. Revelle was very concerned about the greenhouse effect from this emission and was cautious because the carbon cycle was not then well understood. So, he decided that it would be wise to begin monitoring atmospheric concentrations of CO2. In the late 1950s, Revelle and a colleague, Charles Keeling, began monitoring atmospheric CO2 at an observatory on Mauna Loa, on the big island of Hawaii. Mauna Loa was chosen because its elevation and location away from industrial centers made it as close to a global signal as any other location. The record from Mauna Loa, one of the most classic plots in all of science, shown in the figure below, is a dramatic sign of global change that captured the attention of the whole world because it shows that this "experiment" we are conducting is apparently having a significant effect on the global carbon cycle. The climatological consequences of this change are potentially of great importance to the future of the global population. The CO2 concentration recently crossed the 400 ppm mark for the first time in millions of years! In 2018, the yearly average was 412 ppm (check that number with the curve below!).

As the Mauna Loa record and others like it from around the world accumulated, a diverse group of scientists began to appreciate Revelle's concern that we really did not know too much about the global carbon cycle that ultimately regulates how much of our CO2 emissions stay in the atmosphere.

The importance of present-day changes in the carbon cycle, and the potential implications for climate change became much more apparent when scientists began to get results from studies of gas bubbles trapped in glacial ice. As we learned in Module 1, the bubbles are effectively samples of ancient atmospheres, and we can measure the concentration of CO2 and other trace gases like methane in these bubbles, and then by counting the annual layers preserved in glacial ice, we can date these atmospheric samples, providing a record of how CO2 changed over time in the past. The figure below shows the results of some of the ice core studies relevant for the recent past -- back to the year 900 A.D.

The striking feature of these data is that there is an exponential rise in atmospheric CO2 (and methane, another greenhouse gas) that connects with the more recent Mauna Loa record to produce a rather frightening trend. Also shown in the above figure is the record of fossil fuel emissions from around the world, which show a very similar exponential trend. Notice that these two data sets show an exponential rise that seems to begin at about the same time. What does this mean? Does it mean that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between emissions of CO2 and atmospheric CO2 levels? Although we should remember that science cannot prove things to be true beyond all doubt, it is highly likely that there is a cause-and-effect relationship -- it would be an extremely bizarre coincidence if the observed rise in atmospheric CO2 and the emissions of CO2 were unrelated.

How serious is our modification of the natural carbon cycle? Here, we need a slightly longer perspective from which to view our recent changes, so we return to the records from ice cores and look deeper and further back in time than we did in the figure we have been examining.

In addition to providing a record of the past concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, as we learned in Module 1, the ice cores also give us a temperature record. By studying the ratios of stable isotopes of oxygen that make up the glacial ice, we can estimate the temperature (in the region of the ice) at the time the snow fell (glacial ice is formed by the compression of snow as it gets buried to greater and greater depths). From these data, shown in the figure below, we can see the natural variations in atmospheric CO2 and temperature that have occurred over the past 160,000 years (160 kyr).

In fact, looking at this much longer span of time enables us to clearly see that the present CO2 concentration of the atmosphere is unprecedented in the last several hundreds of thousands of years. As geoscientists, we are interested in more than just the last few hundred kiloyears, and so we look back into the past using sediment cores retrieved from the deep sea. Geochemists studying these sediments have been able to reconstruct the approximate concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and the sea surface temperature (SST).

To find atmospheric CO2 levels equivalent to the present, we have to go back 2.5 million years. This means that, to the extent that the state of the carbon cycle is closely linked to the condition of the global climate, we are pushing the system toward a climate that has not occurred any time within the last several million years -- not something to be taken lightly.

The farther back in time we go, the more difficult it is to figure out how CO2 concentrations have changed, but that has not stopped some from attempting:

One thing that is clear is that further back in time, CO2 levels have been much, much higher, and the average global temperatures have also been much higher. Why does the CO2 concentration change so much? This is a big question whose answer involves many factors, but consider two that are relevant to what we'll learn about in this module. Photosynthesis only started in the Silurian (S on the timescale in the figure above), and photosynthesis is a major sink or absorber of atmospheric CO2. Sea level was much higher during the two big peaks in CO2 — this leaves less room for photosynthesis and it also decreases the planet's albedo, making it warmer. A warmer ocean cannot absorb atmospheric CO2 and instead, it releases it to the atmosphere.

In conclusion, from this brief look at the record of fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is clear that we have cause for concern about the effects of the global CO2 "experiment". Because of this concern, there is a tremendous effort underway to better understand the global carbon cycle. In the remainder of this module, we will explore the global carbon cycle by first examining the components and processes involved and then by constructing and experimenting with a variety of models. The models will be relevant to the dynamics of the carbon cycle over a period of several hundred years -- these will enable us to explore a variety of questions about how the system will behave in our lifetimes and a bit beyond.


THE PLAYERS Championship

Since its start in 1974, with Jack Nicklaus’ historic victory over J.C. Snead at Atlanta Country Club, THE PLAYERS Championship has been one of the PGA TOUR‘s most coveted titles. Held annually in March, THE PLAYERS is one of the most anticipated tournaments on the PGA TOUR calendar, boasting not only the strongest field but also the biggest purse on the PGA TOUR. THE PLAYERS Championship 2021 will be held March 11 – 14, 2021.

THE PLAYERS Stadium Course at TPC Sawgrass is a golf course built with both the pros and the fans in mind. The course, owned by the PGA TOUR, first hosted THE PLAYERS in 1982 and is now the permanent home of the annual event. A true “Stadium Course,” the championship-caliber golf course was designed to improve the overall on-site fan experience at THE PLAYERS, while also making it accessible to and playable by golf fans of all abilities.

Working with renowned golf course architect Pete Dye, then-PGA TOUR Commissioner Deane Beman created a course design that favored no particular player or style of play. The result has been a golf course that has tested the best on the PGA TOUR and set the stage for some of the TOUR’s most dramatic finishes. From Jerry Pate’s tossing Pete Dye into the lake on the 18 th hole, to Tiger Woods’ “Better Than Most” putt heard around the world in 2001, THE PLAYERS Championship never disappoints.


Georgia Institute of Technology College of Computing

Applying for undergraduate admission to the Georgia Tech College of Computing is your first step to becoming a graduate of one of the nation's top computing programs.

Master's

Looking to become an expert in your chosen field, with an advanced degree from a top-tier research and educational institution? If so, you are in the right place.

Doctoral

Georgia Tech's College of Computing offers one of the Top 10 graduate computing programs, a world-class faculty, and top-tier research.

Research

The College of Computing’s research programs are recognized for their real-world applicability, social and scientific impact, and world-class leadership.

Career Services

The College of Computing career development team helps our students achieve their goals. Whatever your career aspirations may be - we can provide you with the tools to succeed.

Apply

Apply to the College of Computing, and become a student of one of the defining institutions for computing education and innovation.

Contact Us

Have a question? Want to talk to a current student? Planning a visit? Find maps, addresses, phone numbers, and parking information here.

Social Media

Connect with the College of Computing on social media. Join the conversation and learn more about GT Computing through our videos, blogs, posts, and forums.


Watch the video: history book for you.Samuel short