July 14, 2015 Day 175 of the Seventh Year - History

July 14, 2015 Day 175 of the Seventh Year - History


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President Barack Obama walks down the Cross Hall with Vice President Joe Biden after he delivers a statement on the Iran nuclear agreement in the East Room of the White House, July 14, 2015.

State Floor

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing

Oval Office

1:05PM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House

South Lawn

1:20PM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews

2:05PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Philadelphia International Airport

Philadelphia International Airport

3:05PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks

Philadelphia Convention Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

4:10PM THE PRESIDENT participates in a DNC roundtable

The Rittenhouse Hotel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

5:50PM THE PRESIDENT departs Philadelphia International Airport

Philadelphia International Airport

6:35PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Joint Base Andrews

6:50PM THE PRESIDENT arrives the White House

South Lawn


The name September comes from the Latin septem, meaning seven, since it was the seventh month of the Roman calendar, which began with March. There are 30 days in the month of September, which starts on the same day of the week as December each year but does not end on the same day of the week as any other month in the year.


Facts + Statistics: Hurricanes

The official Atlantic hurricane season runs from June through November, but occasionally storms form outside those months. September is the most common month for hurricanes making landfall in the U.S., followed by August and October, according to an analysis of 1851 to 2015 data by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. No hurricanes made U.S. landfall before June and after November during the period studied.

A tropical cyclone is a rotating low-pressure weather system that has organized thunderstorms but no fronts, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Hurricanes are tropical cyclones which have sustained winds of 74 mph. At this point a hurricane reaches Category 1 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, which has a range of 1 to 5, based on the hurricane's intensity at the time of landfall at the location experiencing the strongest winds. The scale provides examples of the type of damage and impacts in the United States associated with winds of the indicated intensity. It does not address the potential for other hurricane-related phenomena such as storm surge, rainfall-induced floods and tornadoes.

Atlantic Basin: The 2021 Atlantic basin hurricane season will have above-normal activity according to a June 3, 2021 Colorado State University forecast by atmospheric scientist and Triple-I non-resident scholar, Dr. Phillip Klotzbach and his team. The scientists cite weak El Niño conditions and warmer than normal subtropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures for the above-average probability for major hurricanes making landfall along the continental United States coastline and in the Caribbean. The group forecasts 18 named storms (including tropical storm Ana which formed prior to the start of the Atlantic hurricane season), eight hurricanes and four major (category 3 and above) hurricanes for 2021. The averages for 1981 to 2020, which were developed and adopted in April 2021, are 14 named storms, seven hurricanes and three major hurricanes. The forecast will be updated on July 8.

Tropical storm Ana, the first storm of the 2021 Atlantic hurricane season, formed as a subtropical storm on May 22 and became a tropical storm the next day. Ana makes 2021 the seventh consecutive year to have a named storm form before the official start of the hurricane season on June 1, according to Colorado State University atmospheric scientist and Triple-I non-resident scholar, Dr. Phillip Klotzbach. Ana dissipated by May 24 northeast of Bermuda, according to the National Hurricane Center. Tropical storm Bill formed on June 14 east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The storm moved north and did not threaten land before it dissipated.

Atlantic Basin: The record-breaking 2020 hurricane season produced 30 named storms. The old record was set in 2005 when there were 28 storms. Fourteen—Hanna, Isaias, Laura, Marco, Nana, Paulette, Sally, Teddy, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta and Iota—became hurricanes. Seven—Laura, Teddy, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta and Iota—became major (Category 3 or stronger) storms. A typical year has 12 named storms, six hurricanes, and three major hurricanes. Since all 21 of the letters of the alphabet that meteorologists use were exhausted, they began using the Greek alphabet to name storms. A record-breaking eleven named storms or hurricanes made landfall in the continental United States. Of those, six hurricanes made landfall in the continental United States. The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season also broke records as Tropical Storm Edouard formed as the earliest 5th named Atlantic storm on record, according to Colorado State University atmospheric scientist and Triple-I non-resident scholar, Dr. Phillip Klotzbach, and continued to shatter earliest storm records Zeta as the earliest 27 th named storm. The season began early as Tropical Storm Arthur formed on May 16 in the Atlantic Ocean east of Florida, marking the sixth consecutive year that the hurricane season began before the traditional official beginning of the season on June 1. Tropical Storm Bertha, the second named storm to occur before the official beginning of the hurricane season, formed on May 27 near South Carolina. After making landfall near Charleston with winds of 50 mph, Bertha brought heavy rainfall in South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia. According to Aon, 2020 is the third year since 1965 that two named storms developed in the Atlantic Ocean before the beginning of the hurricane season. The company said Bertha caused millions of dollars in insured losses.

Tropical Storm Cristobal formed on June 2 in the Gulf Coast of Mexico. After landfall in Mexico, it made landfall in southeast Louisiana on June 7 between the mouth of the Mississippi River and Grand Isle, Louisiana. Cristobal brought tropical storm-force winds to the Gulf Coast from southeastern Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle and travelled into Arkansas and eastern Missouri, eventually reaching the Great Lakes area and Ontario, Canada. Cristobal caused three direct deaths in the United States.

Tropical Storm Fay became the 6 th named storm of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season when it formed on July 9 off the coast of North Carolina. Fay made landfall on July 10 near Atlantic City, New Jersey, as tropical storm conditions and heavy rainfall spread northeastward along the Mid-Atlantic coast. According to catastrophe risk modeler Karen Clark & Company (KCC), insured losses for wind and storm surge damage to residential, commercial and industrial properties and automobiles in Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and New York are estimated to total $400 million. Fay caused two direct deaths in the United States.

Hurricane Hanna, the first hurricane of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, developed on July 23 southeast of Corpus Christi, Texas, in the Gulf of Mexico. Hanna strengthened into a hurricane on July 25 and made landfall on Padre Island, Texas, north of Port Mansfield, as a strong Category 1 hurricane, and then had a second landfall in Kennedy County. Hanna brought hurricane conditions to south Texas as it moved inland and brought heavy rain and flash flooding over far southeast Texas and northeast Mexico. Rainfall totals in the areas were between 4 to 6 inches but some areas received a foot of rain. Insured losses in Texas range from $350 million to $400 million, according to catastrophe modelers KCC and RMS.

Hurricane Isaias formed as a tropical storm on July 29 south of Puerto Rico, becoming the second hurricane of the 2020 season on July 30, and caused flash flooding and high winds over Puerto Rico. After weakening to a tropical storm, Isaias brought winds and storm surge to East Coast Florida and made its way up the coast. Isaias regained hurricane strength and made landfall in North Carolina near Ocean Isle Beach as a Category 1 hurricane on August 3. By August 4 Isaias weakened to a tropical storm and continued north into Virginia, the Mid-Atlantic states and New England, bringing storm surge, dangerous winds and heavy rain before dissipating on August 5 in southeastern Canada. The storm caused 10 direct deaths in the United States and spawned tornadoes in five states.

Tropical Storm Josephine formed in the tropical Atlantic Ocean on August 13 and dissipated without threatening land. Kyle formed northwest of New Jersey and dissipated in the North Atlantic.

Hurricane Laura formed on August 21 near the Leeward Islands and brought heavy rain and flooding to islands in the Caribbean, including the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico before heading into the Gulf of Mexico. On August 24 Laura became the fourth hurricane of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season northwest of Cuba, and the first major hurricane on August 26. Laura quickly intensified to a strong Category 4 storm and made landfall on August 27 near Cameron, Louisiana, close to the Texas-Louisiana border, bringing catastrophic storm surge, extreme wind and flash flooding. According to Dr. Klotzbach, Laura was the 7th named storm to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 2020, breaking the record of six recorded in 1886 and 1916. He also noted that Laura made landfall with 150 mph winds, stronger than Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and tied with the Last Island hurricane of 1856 as the strongest to strike Louisiana. As a tropical storm damaging winds and flooding rainfall spread inland over central and northern Louisiana. The remnants of Laura traveled through the mid-Mississippi Valley and brought heavy rain to the Mid-Atlantic states. Laura was responsible for seven direct deaths in the United States and widespread property damage, especially in Lake Charles, Louisiana. By March 31, 2021, private insurers in Louisiana have paid or reserved $8.3 billion for 111,200 claims. Insurers have closed 83 percent of all claims reported in Louisiana.

Also on August 21, Hurricane Marco formed in the northwest Caribbean near the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and became a hurricane on August 23 as it traveled northwest into the northern Gulf of Mexico. Marco made landfall in Louisiana near the mouth of the Mississippi River as a tropical storm on August 24 and weakened to a depression soon after. Nana formed on September 1 and became a hurricane on September 2 and made landfall on September 3 on the coast of Belize.

Hurricane Paulette formed over the central tropical Atlantic on September 7. On September 12 it became a hurricane as it approached Bermuda. It made landfall on the island on September 14 and brought hurricane conditions and torrential rain. Paulette became a Category 2 storm later that day. Paulette caused two direct deaths in the United States.

Hurricane Sally developed on September 12 near the southernmost part of Florida and moved into the Gulf of Mexico. It became a hurricane on September 14 in the north central Gulf near the mouth of the Mississippi River. It made landfall as a slow-moving, Category 2 hurricane on September 16 near Gulf Shores, Alabama, bringing extremely dangerous, life-threatening storm surge and catastrophic, record-breaking rain to southern Alabama and the Florida Panhandle. Sally quickly deteriorated to tropical depression status that day as it continued into Georgia. Sally brought post-tropical conditions to the Carolinas and southern Virginia. Preliminary insured property losses ranged from $1 billion to $3.5 billion by catastrophe modelers. Sally caused four direct deaths in the United States.

Hurricane Teddy formed on September 14 west of the Cabo Verde Islands and became a Category 2 hurricane on September 16 east of the Lesser Antilles. Teddy became a Category 4 hurricane on September 17 in the Western Atlantic. The hurricane turned northwestward and passed east of Bermuda as a Category 1 storm and continued north to Nova Scotia, becoming a Category 2 storm. By September 23 Teddy brought destructive waves, strong wind and heavy rainfall to Atlantic Canada and made landfall in Nova Scotia. Teddy caused three direct deaths in the United States.

Tropical storm Vicky also developed on September 14, west of the Cabo Verde Islands and dissipated a few days later. Wilfred became a tropical storm on September 18 in the eastern tropical Atlantic and did not threaten land before degenerating on September 20.

Tropical Storm Beta formed on September 18 in the Gulf of Mexico and brought tropical storm conditions to the southeastern coast of Texas on September 21 and made landfall there on September 21. The storm stalled inland in Texas before moving northeastward and deteriorating to a tropical depression. Beta dropped up to 20 inches of rain in parts of Texas, including about 14 inches in the Houston metropolitan area, and continued to bring heavy rain to Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee. According to Dr. Philip Klotzbach it was the 9th named storm to make landfall in the continental United States, tying the record set in 1916, and only the second time a letter from the Greek alphabet has had to be used by U.S. forecasters since the 1950s. Beta caused one direct death in the United States.

Hurricane Delta, the earliest 25 th named storm on record, formed on October 5 in the Caribbean Sea near Jamaica and became the ninth hurricane of 2020 later that day. Delta rapidly intensified near the Yucatan Peninsula to Category 4 strength and made landfall there on October 7 as a Category 2 storm. Delta moved into the southern Gulf of Mexico and strengthened to a Category 3 storm on October 8. Delta made landfall as a Category 2 storm on the Louisiana coast near Creole on October 9, close to Hurricane Laura’s landfall site, and damaged areas already hit by Laura. Delta brought hurricane conditions to southwest and central Louisiana and eastern Texas before moving northeastward through Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama and the Tennessee valley as a tropical storm and later affecting the Mid-Atlantic states. As of March 31, 2021, private insurers in Louisiana have paid or reserved about $752.8 million for 51,600 claims. Insurers have closed 89 percent of all claims reported in Louisiana. Delta caused two direct deaths in the United States.

Hurricane Epsilon formed on October 19 in the central Atlantic Ocean and became a hurricane on October 20 and reached Category 3 status on October 21. It passed to the east of Bermuda and continued northeastward, bringing high surf and riptides to the Atlantic coast. Epsilon, still a large storm, deteriorated to tropical storm status and became post-tropical on October 26 in the North Atlantic. Epsilon caused one direct death in the United States. Hurricane Zeta formed on October 25 near Cozumel, Mexico, the earliest forming 27 th Atlantic named storm on record. It became a hurricane on October 26 and made landfall on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Zeta made landfall on October 28 as a Category 3 hurricane near Cocodrie, Louisiana. The hurricane was the record-breaking fifth named storm to strike Louisiana in one season. Zeta brought storm surge, high winds and heavy rain to southeastern Louisiana and southern Mississippi. The storm continued through the southeastern states with damaging winds and heavy rainfall. Zeta left about 2.6 million people without power across seven states. Louisiana Gov. John Bel Edwards said the hurricane caused catastrophic damage on Grand Isle in Jefferson Parish by causing three breaches in a levee. As of March 31, 2021, private insurers in Louisiana have paid or reserved about $566.0 million for 29,300 claims. Insurers have closed 88 percent of all claims reported in Louisiana. Zeta caused five direct deaths in the United States.

Hurricane Eta formed over the central Caribbean Sea on October 31 and became a Category 4 hurricane on November 2. On November 3 slow-moving Eta made landfall in Nicaragua as a Category 4 storm, bringing catastrophic wind damage, flash flooding, storm surge and landslides. Eta deteriorated over Honduras on its way to the north Caribbean Sea, but regained tropical storm strength and made landfall in Cuba on November 8. The storm turned northwestward and made landfall in Lower Matecumbe Key, Florida on November 8 as a strong tropical storm and continued to the southwest coast of Florida, bringing heavy rainfall, flash flooding and wind. Eta traveled into the Gulf of Mexico and regained hurricane status on November 11 offshore of southwestern Florida bringing heavy squalls with tropical-storm force winds. On November 12 Eta made a second landfall in Florida near Cedar Key as a tropical storm, producing dangerous storm surge, heavy rains and gusty winds along the Florida Gulf Coast and the northern Florida Peninsula. The storm then moved into the Atlantic Ocean near the Florida/Georgia border. Eta passed offshore of the coasts of South and North Carolina before dissipating. Eta caused seven direct deaths in the United States.

On November 10, a record-breaking 29 th named storm—Theta—formed in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Theta did not threaten land. Hurricane Iota, the 30 th named storm of the 2020 hurricane season, formed on November 13 in the central Caribbean Sea and became a hurricane on November 15. Iota became a major hurricane and strengthened to Category 5 status on its way to Central America, and was the strongest hurricane of the 2020 hurricane season. Iota brought catastrophic winds, life-threatening storm surge and extreme rainfall to Nicaragua and Honduras. The storm made landfall on the northeast coast of Nicaragua as a Category 4 storm on November 16, about 15 miles south of Hurricane Eta’s Category 4 landfall site on November 3. Iota moved west across Honduras and dissipated over El Salvador.

East Pacific: Hurricane Douglas formed in the East Pacific on July 20 and became a hurricane on July 22. By July 23 Douglas was a Category 4 storm, heading toward the Hawaiian Islands. By mid-day July 26 Douglas was closing in on the island of Maui as a Category 1 hurricane. Douglas passed to the north of the islands of Maui, Oahu and Kauai, producing large swells, damaging surf, strong damaging winds. Rainfall between three and six inches but possibly more fell on the islands.

2019: The 2019 season yielded 18 named storms, six of which became hurricanes, including three major ones (Category 3 or higher, with maximum sustained winds of at least 111 mph.) Barry became a hurricane on July 13 in the Gulf of Mexico as it moved toward the Louisiana coast. It made landfall later that day near Intracoastal City, Louisiana, as a tropical storm, bringing heavy rain and wind to the north central Gulf Coast, and remained over Louisiana as it weakened into a tropical depression on July 14. Other areas impacted were the Mississippi River Valley and the southeastern states of Alabama, Florida and Mississippi.

Dorian became a hurricane on August 28 near St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. By August 30, Dorian had strengthened to a Category 4 storm and became an historic Category 5 storm on September 1 as it made landfall over the Abaco Islands in the Bahamas and Grand Bahama Island. Dorian continued to pound the Bahamas into September 3 with devastating wind, rain and storm surge. Dorian brought storm surge resulting in beach erosion and flooding to east coast Florida as a Category 3 storm, and later affected South and North Carolina. On September 6 Dorian made landfall at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, as a Category 1 storm, bringing wind, storm surge and flooding to North Carolina and Virginia on its way north. It made landfall over Nova Scotia on September 7 as a Category 1 hurricane. Aon estimates industry insured losses in the United States from Dorian to total $3.5 billion, including reinsurance and NFIP losses.

Humberto became a hurricane on September 15 southwest of Bermuda and peaked at Category 3 as it approached the island on September 16. As a post-tropical storm Humberto produced large swells and rip tides along the east coast of the United States. Tropical Storm Imelda brought an estimated 16 to 24 inches of rain to Beaumont and Houston, Texas and heavy rain over a large section between southwestern Louisiana and Texas by September 20. Aon estimated that Imelda caused $1.2 billion in insured losses, including NFIP flood claims. Hurricane Jerry formed around the same time, becoming a hurricane on September 19. Hurricane Lorenzo became a Category 5 hurricane in the central subtropical Atlantic—the farthest east Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on record. It generated 49-foot waves, with an occasional rogue wave nearing 100 feet, sending swells to both sides of the Atlantic.

2018: During the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season 15 named storms formed. Eight of those storms became hurricanes and two of those, Florence and Michael, became major storms, Category 3 and above. Florence, the third hurricane of the season, reached Category 4 status as a slow-moving storm that brought hurricane-force winds, life-threatening storm surge, and freshwater flooding. Florence made landfall along the southeastern coast of North Carolina as a Category 1 storm and brought significant storm surge flooding to portions of eastern North Carolina. It produced rainfall that exceeded 20 inches along the North and South Carolina border, and in some parts of North Carolina exceeded 30 inches, a state record. The previous record was 24 inches caused by Hurricane Floyd in 1999. In South Carolina a new record was reached when rainfall reached almost 24 inches. Florence directly caused 22 deaths in the United States, including 15 in North Carolina, four in South Carolina and three in Virginia, according to the National Hurricane Center (NHC). Catastrophe modelers have estimated that insured losses from Hurricane Florence would range from $2.0 billion to $5.5 billion, excluding National Flood Insurance Program losses.

Hurricane Michael became a strong Category 5 storm on October 10 and made landfall near Mexico Beach, Florida, in the Florida Panhandle. Hurricane Michael was the strongest hurricane ever to hit the Florida Panhandle and the second known Category 5 landfall on the northern Gulf Coast, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was the first Category 5 storm to make landfall in the United States, after Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Michael caused 16 deaths in the United States: seven in Florida, five in Virginia, three in North Carolina and one in Georgia. Aon estimates that insured losses from Hurricane Michael, including losses covered by the federally administered National Flood Insurance Program, totaled $13.3 billion in dollars when it occurred and $13.6 billion in 2020 dollars, making it the ninth-costliest hurricane to hit the United States.

2017: The Atlantic hurricane season of 2017 broke several records, as 17 tropical storms formed, with 10 of them becoming hurricanes. Six hurricanes became major storms, Category 3 and above—Harvey, Irma, Jose, Lee, Maria and Ophelia. Two hurricanes, Irma and Maria, reached Category 5 strength. The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was the first time three Category 4 hurricanes—Harvey, Irma and Maria—made landfall in the United States and its territories in one year, according to the Triple-I.

The chart below shows insured losses in dollars for the top 10 costliest hurricanes in the United States when they occurred and in 2020 dollars, adjusted for inflation. According to Aon, Katrina was the costliest hurricane on record, causing $65 billion in insured losses when it occurred in 2005, including losses from the NFIP. Losses from Katrina totaled $86.6 billion in 2020 dollars.


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La Marseillaise

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La Marseillaise, French national anthem, composed in one night during the French Revolution (April 24, 1792) by Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle, a captain of the engineers and amateur musician.

After France declared war on Austria on April 20, 1792, P.F. Dietrich, the mayor of Strasbourg (where Rouget de Lisle was then quartered), expressed the need for a marching song for the French troops. “La Marseillaise” was Rouget de Lisle’s response to this call. Originally entitled “Chant de guerre de l’armée du Rhin” (“War Song of the Army of the Rhine”), the anthem came to be called “La Marseillaise” because of its popularity with volunteer army units from Marseille. The spirited and majestic song made an intense impression whenever it was sung at Revolutionary public occasions. The Convention accepted it as the French national anthem in a decree passed on July 14, 1795. “La Marseillaise” was banned by Napoleon during the empire and by Louis XVIII on the Second Restoration (1815) because of its Revolutionary associations. Authorized after the July Revolution of 1830, it was again banned by Napoleon III and not reinstated until 1879.

The original text of “La Marseillaise” had six verses, and a seventh and last verse (not written by Rouget de Lisle) was later added. Only the first and sixth verses of the anthem are customarily used at public occasions. The text of these two verses follows, along with an English translation:

Allons, enfants de la patrie,

Le jour de gloire est arrivé.

Contre nous, de la tyrannie,

L’étendard sanglant est levé l’étendard

sanglant est levé.

Entendez-vous, dans les campagnes

Mugir ces féroces soldats?

Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras

Égorger nos fils, nos compagnes.

Aux armes, citoyens!

Formez vos bataillons,

Marchons, marchons!

Qu’un sang impur

Abreuve nos sillons.

Amour sacré de la Patrie,

Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs.

Liberté, liberté chérie,

Combats avec tes défenseurs combats

avec tes défenseurs.

Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoire

Accoure à tes mâles accents

Que tes ennemis expirants

Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire!

Aux armes, citoyens! etc.

(Let us go, children of the fatherland,

Our day of glory has arrived.

Against us the bloody flag of tyranny

is raised the bloody

flag is raised.

Do you hear in the countryside

The roar of those savage soldiers?

They come right into our arms

To cut the throats of our sons, our comrades.

To arms, citizens!

Form your battalions,

Let us march, let us march!

That their impure blood

Should water our fields.

Sacred love of the fatherland,

Guide and support our vengeful arms.

Liberty, beloved liberty,

Fight with your defenders fight

with your defenders.

Under our flags, so that victory

Will rush to your manly strains

That your dying enemies

Should see your triumph and glory!

To arms, citizens! etc.)


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July 14, 2015 Day 175 of the Seventh Year - History

This Act may be cited as the Strengthening Education through Research Act .

The table of contents for this Act is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title. Sec. 2. Table of contents. Sec. 3. Nonduplication. TITLE I—EDUCATION SCIENCES REFORM Sec. 101. References. Sec. 102. Definitions. Part A—The Institute of Education Sciences Sec. 111. Establishment. Sec. 112. Functions. Sec. 113. Delegation. Sec. 114. Office of the Director. Sec. 115. Priorities. Sec. 116. National Board for Education Sciences. Sec. 117. Commissioners of the National Education Centers. Sec. 118. Transparency. Sec. 119. Competitive awards. Part B—National Center for Education Research Sec. 131. Establishment. Sec. 132. Duties. Sec. 133. Standards for conduct and evaluation of research. Part C—National Center for Education Statistics Sec. 151. Establishment. Sec. 152. Duties. Sec. 153. Performance of duties. Sec. 154. Reports. Sec. 155. Dissemination. Sec. 156. Cooperative education statistics systems. Part D—National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance Sec. 171. Establishment. Sec. 172. Commissioner for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Sec. 173. Evaluations. Sec. 174. Regional educational laboratories for research, development, dissemination, and evaluation. Part E—National Center for Special Education Research Sec. 175. Establishment. Sec. 176. Commissioner for Special Education Research. Sec. 177. Duties. Part F—General provisions Sec. 181. Prohibitions. Sec. 182. Confidentiality. Sec. 183. Availability of data. Sec. 184. Performance management. Sec. 185. Authority to publish. Sec. 186. Repeals. Sec. 187. Fellowships. Sec. 188. Authorization of appropriations. Part G—Technical and conforming amendments Sec. 191. Technical and conforming amendments to other laws. TITLE II—EDUCATIONAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Sec. 201. References. Sec. 202. Definitions. Sec. 203. Comprehensive centers. Sec. 204. Evaluations. Sec. 205. Existing technical assistance providers. Sec. 206. Regional advisory committees. Sec. 207. Priorities. Sec. 208. Grant program for statewide, longitudinal data systems. Sec. 209. Authorization of appropriations. TITLE III—NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS Sec. 301. References. Sec. 302. National Assessment Governing Board. Sec. 303. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Sec. 304. Definitions. Sec. 305. Authorization of appropriations. TITLE IV—EVALUATION PLAN Sec. 401. Research and evaluation. 3. Nonduplication (a) In general

The Act of November 5, 2002 ( Public Law 107–279 116 Stat. 1940), is amended by inserting after section 1 the following:

In collecting information and data under this Act, including requiring the reporting of information and data, the Secretary of Education shall, to the extent appropriate, not duplicate other requirements and shall use information and data that are available from existing Federal, State, and local sources, in order to reduce burden and cost to the Department of Education, States, local educational agencies (as defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 7801 )), and other entities.

The table of contents in section 1 of the Act of November 5, 2002 ( Public Law 107–279 116 Stat. 1940), is amended by inserting after the item relating to section 1 the following:

Except as otherwise expressly provided, whenever in this title an amendment or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal of, a section or other provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section or other provision of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 ( 20 U.S.C. 9501 et seq. ).

Section 102 ( 20 U.S.C. 9501 ) is amended—

by striking paragraphs (13) and (18)

by redesignating paragraphs (2) through (11), (12), (14), (15), (16), (17), and (19) through (23), as paragraphs (3) through (12), (14), (15), (16), (18), (20), and (22) through (26), respectively

by inserting after paragraph (1) the following:

(2) Adult education adult education and literacy activities

The terms adult education and adult education and literacy activities have the meanings given the terms in section 203 of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act ( 20 U.S.C. 9202 ).

in paragraph (6), as redesignated by paragraph (2), by striking Affairs and inserting Education

in paragraph (11), as redesignated by paragraph (2)—

by inserting or other information, in a timely manner and after evaluations, and

by inserting school leaders, after teachers,

by inserting after paragraph (12), as redesignated by paragraph (2), the following:

The term English learner means an individual who is limited English proficient, as defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 7801 ) or section 637 of the Head Start Act ( 42 U.S.C. 9832 ).

in paragraph (14), as redesignated by paragraph (2), by inserting , school leaders, after teachers

by inserting after paragraph (16), as redesignated by paragraph (2), the following:

(17) Minority-serving institution

The term minority-serving institution means an institution of higher education described in section 371(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 1067q(a) ).

in paragraph (18), as redesignated by paragraph (2), by striking section 133(c) and inserting section 133(d)

by inserting after paragraph (18), as redesignated by paragraph (2), the following:

(19) Principles of scientific research

The term principles of scientific research means principles of research that—

apply rigorous, systematic, and objective methodology to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs

present findings and make claims that are appropriate to, and supported by, the methods that have been employed and

include, appropriate to the research being conducted—

use of systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment

use of data analyses that are adequate to support the general findings

reliance on measurements or observational methods that provide reliable and generalizable findings

strong claims of causal relationships, only with research designs that eliminate plausible competing explanations for observed results, such as, but not limited to, random-assignment experiments

presentation of studies and methods in sufficient detail and clarity to allow for replication or, at a minimum, to offer the opportunity to build systematically on the findings of the research

acceptance by a peer-reviewed journal or critique by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review and

consistency of findings across multiple studies or sites to support the generality of results and conclusions.

by inserting after paragraph (20), as redesignated by paragraph (2), the following:

The term school leader means a principal, assistant principal, or other individual who is—

an employee or officer of—

an elementary school or secondary school

a local educational agency serving an elementary school or secondary school or

another entity operating the elementary school or secondary school and

responsible for the daily instructional leadership and managerial operations of the elementary school or secondary school.

in paragraph (23), as redesignated by paragraph (2), by striking scientifically based research standards and inserting the principles of scientific research .

A The Institute of Education Sciences 111. Establishment

Section 111(b) ( 20 U.S.C. 9511(b) ) is amended—

in paragraph (1), in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by inserting including adult education, after postsecondary study, and

in the matter preceding subparagraph (A)—

by striking and wide dissemination activities and inserting and, consistent with section 114(j), wide dissemination and utilization activities and

by striking (including in technology areas) and

in subparagraph (B), by inserting disability, after gender, .

Section 112 ( 20 U.S.C. 9512 ) is amended—

by inserting (including evaluations of impact and implementation) after education evaluation and

by inserting and utilization before the semicolon and

by inserting , consistent with section 114(j), after disseminate and

by inserting and scientifically valid education evaluations carried out under this title before the semicolon.

Section 113 ( 20 U.S.C. 9513 ) is amended—

by striking paragraph (1) and

by redesignating paragraphs (2) through (5) as paragraphs (1) through (4), respectively

in subsection (b), by striking Secretary may assign the Institute responsibility for administering and inserting Director may accept requests from the Secretary for the Institute to administer and

by adding at the end the following:

With respect to any contract entered into under this title, the Director shall be consulted—

during the procurement process and

in the management of such contract’s performance, which shall be consistent with the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185.

114. Office of the Director

Section 114 ( 20 U.S.C. 9514 ) is amended—

in subsection (a), by striking Except as provided in subsection (b)(2), the and inserting The

in paragraph (1), by inserting before the period the following: , except that if a successor to the Director has not been appointed as of the date of expiration of the Director’s term, the Director may serve for an additional 1-year period, beginning on the day after the date of expiration of the Director’s term, or until a successor has been appointed under subsection (a), whichever occurs first

by striking paragraph (2) and inserting the following:

A Director may be reappointed under subsection (a) for one additional term.

in the heading, by striking Subsequent directors and inserting Recommendations and

by striking , other than a Director appointed under paragraph (2)

in paragraph (3), by inserting before the period the following: , and, as appropriate, with such research and activities carried out by public and private entities, to avoid duplicative or overlapping efforts

in paragraph (4), by inserting , and the use of evidence after statistics activities

by inserting and maintain after establish and

by inserting and subsection (h) after section 116(b)(3)

in paragraph (7), by inserting disability, after gender,

in paragraph (8), by striking historically Black colleges or universities and inserting minority-serving institutions

by striking paragraph (9) and inserting the following:

To coordinate with the Secretary to ensure that the results of the Institute’s work are coordinated with, and utilized by, the Department’s technical assistance providers and dissemination networks.

by striking paragraphs (10) and (11) and

by redesignating paragraph (12) as paragraph (10)

by redesignating subsection (h) as subsection (i)

by inserting after subsection (g), the following:

The Director shall establish and maintain a peer-review system involving highly qualified individuals, including practitioners, as appropriate, with an in-depth knowledge of the subject to be investigated, including, in the case of special education research, an understanding of special education, for—

reviewing and evaluating each application for a grant or cooperative agreement under this title that exceeds $100,000 and

evaluating and assessing all reports and other products that exceed $100,000 to be published and publicly released by the Institute.

in subsection (i), as redesignated by paragraph (4)—

by striking the products and and

by striking certify that evidence-based claims about those products and and inserting determine whether evidence-based claims in those and

by adding at the end the following:

(j) Relevance, dissemination, and utilization

To ensure all activities authorized under this title are rigorous, relevant, and useful for researchers, policymakers, practitioners, and the public, the Director shall—

ensure such activities address significant challenges faced by practitioners, and increase knowledge in the field of education

ensure that the information, products, and publications of the Institute are—

prepared and widely disseminated—

in forms that are understandable, easily accessible, and usable, or adaptable for use in, the improvement of educational practice and

widely disseminated through electronic transfer, and other means, such as posting to the Institute’s website or other relevant place

promote the utilization of the information, products, and publications of the Institute, including through the use of dissemination networks and technical assistance providers, within the Institute and the Department and

monitor and manage the performance of all activities authorized under this title in accordance with section 185.

Section 115 ( 20 U.S.C. 9515 ) is amended—

in the matter preceding paragraph (1)—

by striking (taking into consideration long-term research and development on core issues conducted through the national research and development centers) and inserting at least once every 6 years and

by striking such as and inserting including

by inserting ensuring that all students have the ability to obtain a high-quality education, particularly before closing

by striking low-performing children and inserting low-performing students

by striking especially achievement gaps between

by striking nonminority children and inserting nonminority students, students with disabilities and students without disabilities,

by striking and between disadvantaged children and such children's and inserting and disadvantaged students and such students' and

by striking and after the semicolon

by striking paragraph (2) and

by adding at the end the following:

improving access to and the quality of early childhood education

improving education in elementary schools and secondary schools, particularly among low-performing students and schools and

improving access to, opportunities for, and completion of postsecondary education and adult education.

in subsection (d)(1), by striking by means of the Internet and inserting by electronic means such as posting in an easily accessible manner on the Institute’s website .

116. National Board for Education Sciences

Section 116 ( 20 U.S.C. 9516 ) is amended—

in paragraph (2), by striking to guide the work of the Institute and inserting , and to advise, and provide input to, the Director on the activities of the Institute on an ongoing basis

in paragraph (3), by inserting under section 114(h) after procedures

in paragraph (8), by inserting disability, after gender,

by striking To solicit and inserting To ensure all activities of the Institute are relevant to education policy and practice by soliciting, on an ongoing basis, and

by striking consistent with and inserting consistent with section 114(j) and

by inserting the Institute’s after enhance and

by striking among other Federal and State research agencies and inserting with public and private entities to improve the work of the Institute and

by adding at the end the following:

To conduct the evaluations required under subsection (d).

by inserting Board, before National Academy and

by striking and the National Science Advisor and inserting the National Science Advisor, and other entities and organizations that have knowledge of individuals who are highly qualified to appraise education research, statistics, evaluations, or development

in clause (i), by striking , which may include those researchers recommended by the National Academy of Sciences

by redesignating clause (ii) as clause (iii)

by inserting after clause (i), the following:

Not fewer than 2 practitioners who are knowledgeable about the education needs of the United States, who may include school-based professional educators, teachers, school leaders, local educational agency superintendents, and members of local boards of education or Bureau-funded school boards.

in clause (iii), as redesignated by subclause (II)—

by striking school-based professional educators,

by inserting State leaders in adult education, after executives,

by striking local educational agency superintendents,

by striking or local and

by striking or Bureau-funded school boards

in the matter preceding clause (i), by inserting beginning on the date of appointment of the member, after 4 years,

by redesignating clause (ii) as clause (i)

in clause (i), as redesignated by subclause (III), by striking the period and inserting and and

by adding at the end the following:

in a case in which a successor to a member has not been appointed as of the date of expiration of the member’s term, the member may serve for an additional 1-year period, beginning on the day after the date of expiration of the member’s term, or until a successor has been appointed under paragraph (1), whichever occurs first.

by striking subparagraph (C) and

by redesignating subparagraph (D) as subparagraph (C) and

by redesignating subparagraphs (A) through (E) as subparagraphs (B) through (F), respectively

by inserting before subparagraph (B), as redesignated by clause (i), the following:

In the exercise of its duties under subsection (b) and in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), the Board shall be independent of the Director and the other offices and officers of the Institute.

in subparagraph (B), as redesignated by clause (i), by inserting before the period at the end the following: for a term of not more than 6 years, and who may be reappointed by the Board for 1 additional term of not more than 6 years and

by adding at the end the following:

The Board may establish standing or temporary subcommittees to make recommendations to the Board for carrying out activities authorized under this title.

by redesignating subsection (e) as subsection (d)

in subsection (d), as redesignated by paragraph (4)—

in the subsection heading, by striking Annual and inserting Evaluation

by striking The Board and inserting the following:

by striking not later than July 1 of each year, a report and inserting and make widely available to the public (including by electronic means such as posting in an easily accessible manner on the Institute’s website), a report once every 5 years and

by adding at the end the following:

An evaluation report described in paragraph (1) shall include—

subject to paragraph (3), an evaluation of the activities authorized for each of the National Education Centers, which—

uses the performance management system described in section 185 and

is conducted by an independent entity

a review of the Institute to ensure its work, consistent with the requirements of section 114(j), is timely, rigorous, and relevant

any recommendations regarding actions that may be taken to enhance the ability of the Institute and the National Education Centers to carry out their priorities and missions

a summary of the major research findings of the Institute and the activities carried out under section 113(b) during the 3 preceding fiscal years and

interim findings made widely available to the public (including by electronic means such as posting in an easily accessible manner on the Institute’s website) 3 years after the independent entity has begun reviewing the work of the Institute.

(3) National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance

With respect to the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, an evaluation report described in paragraph (1) shall contain—

an evaluation described in paragraph (2)(A) of the activities authorized for such Center, except for the regional educational laboratories established under section 174 and

a summative or interim evaluation, whichever is most recent, for each such laboratory conducted under section 174(i) on or after the date of enactment of the Strengthening Education through Research Act or, in a case in which such an evaluation is not available for a laboratory, the most recent evaluation for the laboratory conducted prior to the date of enactment of such Act.

117. Commissioners of the National Education Centers

Section 117 ( 20 U.S.C. 9517 ) is amended—

in paragraph (1), by striking Except as provided in subsection (b), each and inserting Each

by striking Except as provided in subsection (b), each and inserting Each and

by inserting , statistics, after research and

in paragraph (3), by striking Except as provided in subsection (b), each and inserting Each

by redesignating subsections (c) and (d) as subsections (b) and (c), respectively and

in subsection (c), as redesignated by paragraph (3), by striking , except the Commissioner for Education Statistics, .

118. Transparency (a) In general

Section 119 ( 20 U.S.C. 9519 ) is amended to read as follows:

Not later than 120 days after awarding a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this title in excess of $100,000, the Director shall make publicly available (including through electronic means such as posting in an easily accessible manner on the Institute’s website) a description of the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement, including, at a minimum, the amount, duration, recipient, and the purpose of the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

The table of contents in section 1 of the Act of November 5, 2002 ( Public Law 107–279 116 Stat. 1940), is amended by striking the item relating to section 119 and inserting the following:

Section 120 ( 20 U.S.C. 9520 ) is amended by striking when practicable and inserting consistent with section 114(h) .

B National Center for Education Research 131. Establishment

Section 131(b) ( 20 U.S.C. 9531(b) ) is amended—

by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the following:

to sponsor sustained research that will lead to the accumulation of knowledge and understanding of education, consistent with the priorities described in section 115

by striking and at the end of paragraph (3)

in paragraph (4), by striking the period and inserting and and

by adding at the end the following:

consistent with section 114(j), to widely disseminate and promote utilization of the work of the Research Center.

Section 133 ( 20 U.S.C. 9533 ) is amended—

in paragraph (1), by striking peer-review standards and

by redesignating paragraph (3) as paragraph (2)

by redesignating paragraphs (5) through (9) as paragraphs (3) through (7), respectively

in paragraph (3), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), by inserting in the implementation of programs carried out by the Department and other agencies before within the Federal Government

in paragraph (5), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), by striking disseminate, through the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, and inserting widely disseminate, consistent with section 114(j),

in paragraph (6), as redesignated by subparagraph (E)—

by striking Director and inserting Board and

by striking of a biennial report, as described in section 119 and inserting and dissemination of each evaluation report under section 116(d)

in paragraph (7), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), by inserting and which may include research on social and emotional learning, and the acquisition of competencies and skills, including the ability to think critically, solve complex problems, evaluate evidence, and communicate effectively, after gap,

by inserting after paragraph (7), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), the following:

to the extent time and resources allow, when findings from previous research under this part provoke relevant follow up questions, carry out research initiatives on such follow up questions

by redesignating paragraphs (10) and (11) as paragraphs (9) and (10), respectively

by striking paragraph (9), as redesignated by subparagraph (K), and inserting the following:

carry out research initiatives, including rigorous, peer-reviewed, large-scale, long-term, and broadly applicable empirical research, regarding the impact of technology on education, including online education and hybrid learning

in paragraph (10), as redesignated by subparagraph (K), by striking the period at the end and inserting and and

by adding at the end the following:

to the extent feasible, carry out research on the quality of implementation of practices and strategies determined to be effective through scientifically valid research.

by striking subsection (b) and inserting the following:

The Research Commissioner shall propose to the Director and, subject to the approval of the Director, implement a research plan for the activities of the Research Center that—

is consistent with the priorities and mission of the Institute and the mission of the Research Center described in section 131(b), and includes the activities described in subsection (a)

is carried out and, as appropriate, updated and modified, including through the use of the results of the Research Center’s most recent evaluation report under section 116(d)

describes how the Research Center will use the performance management system described in section 185 to assess and improve the activities of the Center

meets the procedures for peer review established and maintained by the Director under section 114(f)(5) and the standards of research described in section 134 and

includes both basic research and applied research, which shall include research conducted through field-initiated research and ongoing research initiatives.

by redesignating subsection (c) as subsection (d)

by inserting after subsection (b), the following:

(c) Grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements

The Research Commissioner may award grants to, or enter into contracts or cooperative agreements with, eligible applicants to carry out research under subsection (a).

For purposes of this subsection, the term eligible applicant means an applicant that has the ability and capacity to conduct scientifically valid research.

(3) Applications (A) In general

An eligible applicant that wishes to receive a grant, or enter into a contract or cooperative agreement, under this section shall submit an application to the Research Commissioner at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Research Commissioner may require.

An application submitted under subparagraph (A) shall describe how the eligible applicant will address and demonstrate progress on the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185, with respect to the activities that will be carried out under the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

in subsection (d), as redesignated by paragraph (3)—

by striking paragraph (1) and inserting the following:

In carrying out activities under subsection (a)(2), the Research Commissioner shall support national research and development centers that address topics of importance and relevance in the field of education across the country and are consistent with the Institute’s priorities under section 115.

by striking paragraphs (2), (3), and (5)

by redesignating paragraphs (4), (6), and (7) as paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), respectively

in paragraph (2), as redesignated by subparagraph (C)—

in the matter preceding subparagraph (A)—

by striking 5 additional and inserting 2 additional and

by striking notwithstanding section 134(b), and inserting notwithstanding section 114(h),

in subparagraph (A), by striking and after the semicolon

in subparagraph (B), by striking the period and inserting and and

by adding at the end the following:

demonstrates progress on the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185.

in paragraph (3), as redesignated by subparagraph (C), by striking paragraphs (4) and (5) and inserting paragraph (2) and

by striking paragraph (4), as redesignated by subparagraph (C), and inserting the following:

To the extent feasible and when relevant to the research being conducted, research conducted under this subsection shall be disaggregated and cross-tabulated by age, race, gender, disability status, English learner status, socioeconomic background, and other population characteristics as determined by the Research Commissioner, so long as any reported information does not reveal individually identifiable information.

133. Standards for conduct and evaluation of research

Section 134 ( 20 U.S.C. 9534 ) is amended—

in paragraph (1), by striking based and inserting valid and

in paragraph (2), by striking and wide dissemination activities and inserting and, consistent with section 114(j), wide dissemination and utilization activities

by striking subsection (b) and

by redesignating subsection (c) as subsection (b).

C National Center for Education Statistics 151. Establishment

Section 151(b) ( 20 U.S.C. 9541(b) ) is amended—

in paragraph (2), by inserting and consistent with the privacy protections under section 183 after manner and

in subparagraph (A), by inserting disability, after cultural, and

by striking subparagraph (B) and inserting the following:

is consistent with section 114(j), is relevant, timely, and widely disseminated.

Section 153 ( 20 U.S.C. 9543 ) is amended—

in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by inserting , consistent with the privacy protections under section 183, after Center shall

by striking subparagraph (D) and inserting the following:

secondary school graduation and completion rates, including the four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (as defined in section 200.19(b)(1)(i)(A) of title 34, Code of Federal Regulations, as such section was in effect on November 28, 2008) and the extended-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (as defined in section 200.19(b)(1)(v)(A) of title 34, Code of Federal Regulations, as such section was in effect on November 28, 2008), and school dropout rates, and adult literacy

in subparagraph (E), by striking and opportunity for, and inserting opportunity for, and completion of

by striking subparagraph (F) and inserting the following:

teaching and school leadership, including information on teacher and school leader pre-service preparation, professional development, teacher distribution, and teacher and school leader evaluation

in subparagraph (G), by inserting and school leaders before the semicolon

in subparagraph (H), by inserting , climate, and in- and out-of-school suspensions and expulsions before , including information regarding

by striking subparagraph (K) and inserting the following:

the access to, and use of, technology to improve elementary schools and secondary schools

in subparagraph (L), by striking and opportunity for, and inserting opportunity for, and quality of

in subparagraph (M), by striking such programs during school recesses and inserting summer school

by striking vocational and inserting career and

by striking and after the semicolon

in subparagraph (O), by inserting and after the semicolon and

by adding at the end the following:

access to, and opportunity for, adult education and literacy activities

by striking when such disaggregated information will facilitate educational and policy decisionmaking and inserting so long as any reported information does not reveal individually identifiable information and

by striking limited English proficiency and inserting English learner status

in paragraph (4), by inserting before the semicolon the following: , and the implementation (with the assistance of the Department and other Federal officials who have statutory authority to provide assistance on applicable privacy laws, regulations, and policies) of appropriate privacy protections

by striking determining voluntary standards and guidelines to assist and inserting providing technical assistance to and

by striking promote linkages across States,

by striking Third and inserting Trends in and

by inserting and the Program for International Student Assessment after Science Study

in paragraph (7), by striking the semicolon and inserting the following: and ensuring such collections protect student privacy consistent with section 183 and

by striking paragraph (8) and inserting the following:

assisting the Board in the preparation and dissemination of each evaluation report under section 116(d).

by redesignating subsection (b) as subsection (c) and

by inserting after subsection (a) the following:

The Statistics Commissioner shall develop a plan in consultation with the Director and implement a plan for activities of the Statistics Center that—

is consistent with the priorities and mission of the Institute and the mission of the Statistics Center described in section 151(b)

is carried out and, as appropriate, updated and modified, including through the use of the results of the Statistic Center’s most recent evaluation report under section 116(d) and

describes how the Statistics Center will use the performance management system described in section 185 to assess and improve the activities of the Center.

153. Performance of duties

Section 154 ( 20 U.S.C. 9544 ) is amended—

by striking In carrying and inserting the following:

by inserting to eligible applicants after technical assistance and

by adding at the end the following:

For purposes of this section, the term eligible applicant means an applicant that has the ability and capacity to carry out activities under this part.

(3) Applications (A) In general

An eligible applicant that wishes to receive a grant, or enter into a contract or cooperative agreement, under this section shall submit an application to the Statistics Commissioner at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Statistics Commissioner may require.

An application submitted under subparagraph (A) shall describe how the eligible applicant will address and demonstrate progress on the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185, with respect to the activities that will be carried out under the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

in subsection (b)(2)(A), by striking vocational and and inserting career and technical education programs, and

in subsection (c), by striking 5 years the second place it appears and inserting 2 years if the recipient demonstrates progress on the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185, with respect to the activities carried out under the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement received under this section .

Section 155 ( 20 U.S.C. 9545 ) is amended—

in subsection (a), by inserting (consistent with section 114(h)) after review and

in subsection (b), by striking 2003 and inserting 2016 .

Section 156 ( 20 U.S.C. 9546 ) is amended—

in subsection (c), by adding at the end the following: Such projects shall adhere to student privacy requirements under section 183. and

in paragraph (1), by adding at the end the following: Before receiving access to educational data under this paragraph, a Federal agency shall describe to the Statistics Center the specific research intent for use of the data, how access to the data may meet such research intent, and how the Federal agency will protect the confidentiality of the data consistent with the requirements of section 183.

by inserting and consistent with section 183 after may prescribe and

by adding at the end the following: Before receiving access to data under this paragraph, an interested party shall describe to the Statistics Center the specific research intent for use of the data, how access to the data may meet such research intent, and how the party will protect the confidentiality of the data consistent with the requirements of section 183. and

by adding at the end the following:

The Statistics Center shall have the authority to deny any requests for access to data under paragraph (1) or (2) if the data requested would be unnecessary for or unrelated to the proposed research design or research intent, or if the request would introduce risk of a privacy violation or misuse of data.

(4) Applicability of requirements

The requirements described under the second sentence of paragraph (1) and the second sentence of paragraph (2) and the authority under paragraph (3) shall not apply to public use data sets.

156. Cooperative education statistics systems (a) In general

Section 157 ( 20 U.S.C. 9547 ) is amended—

in the section heading, by striking systems and inserting partnerships

by striking national cooperative education statistics systems and inserting cooperative education statistics partnerships

by striking producing and maintaining, with the cooperation and inserting reviewing and improving, with the voluntary participation

by striking comparable and uniform and inserting data quality standards, which may include establishing voluntary guidelines to standardize

by striking adult education, and libraries, and inserting and adult education and

by adding at the end the following: No student data shall be collected by the partnerships established under this section, nor shall such partnerships establish a national student data system. .

The table of contents in section 1 of the Act of November 5, 2002 ( Public Law 107–279 116 Stat. 1940), is amended by striking the item relating to section 157 and inserting the following:

Sec. 157. Cooperative education statistics partnerships. .

D National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance 171. Establishment

Section 171 ( 20 U.S.C. 9561 ) is amended—

by redesignating paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) as paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), respectively

in paragraph (1), as redesignated by subparagraph (B), by striking of such programs and all that follows through science) and inserting and to evaluate the implementation of such programs and

in paragraph (2), as redesignated by subparagraph (B), by striking and wide dissemination of results of and inserting and, consistent with section 114(j), the wide dissemination and utilization of results of all and

172. Commissioner for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance

Section 172 ( 20 U.S.C. 9562 ) is amended—

by striking paragraph (2) and inserting the following:

widely disseminate, consistent with section 114(j), all information on scientifically valid research and statistics supported by the Institute and all scientifically valid education evaluations supported by the Institute, particularly to State educational agencies and local educational agencies, to institutions of higher education, to the public, the media, voluntary organizations, professional associations, and other constituencies, especially with respect to the priorities described in section 115

by inserting , consistent with section 114(j) after timely, and efficient manner and

by striking that shall include all topics covered in paragraph (2)(E)

by striking development and dissemination and inserting development, dissemination, and utilization and

by striking the provision of technical assistance,

by striking subsection (d) and inserting subsection (e) and

by inserting and after the semicolon

by striking Director and inserting Board

by striking preparation of a biennial report and inserting preparation and dissemination of each evaluation report and

by striking 119 and and inserting 116(d). and

by inserting all before information disseminated and

by striking , which may include and all that follows through of this Act)

by redesignating subsection (d) as subsection (e)

by inserting after subsection (b) the following:

The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall propose to the Director and, subject to the approval of the Director, implement a plan for the activities of the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance that—

is consistent with the priorities and mission of the Institute and the mission of the Center described in section 171(b)

is carried out and, as appropriate, updated and modified, including through the use of the results of the Center’s most recent evaluation report under section 116(d) and

describes how the Center will use the performance management system described in section 185 to assess and improve the activities of the Center.

(d) Grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements

In carrying out the duties under this part, the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner may—

award grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements to eligible applicants to carry out the activities under this part and

provide technical assistance.

For purposes of this section, the term eligible applicant means an applicant that has the ability and capacity to carry out activities under this part.

(3) Entities to conduct evaluations

In awarding grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under paragraph (1) to carry out activities under section 173, the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall make such awards to eligible applicants with the ability and capacity to conduct scientifically valid education evaluations.

(4) Applications (A) In general

An eligible applicant that wishes to receive a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under paragraph (1) shall submit an application to the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Commissioner may require.

An application submitted under subparagraph (A) shall describe how the eligible applicant will address and demonstrate progress on the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185, with respect to the activities carried out under such grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements under paragraph (1) may be awarded, on a competitive basis, for a period of not more than 5 years, and may be renewed at the discretion of the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner for an additional period of not more than 2 years if the recipient demonstrates progress on the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185, with respect to the activities carried out under the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

in subsection (e), as redesignated by paragraph (4)—

in paragraph (1), by striking There is established and all that follows through Regional Assistance and inserting The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner may establish

in paragraph (2)(A), by inserting all before products and

in paragraph (2)(B)(ii), by striking 2002 and all that follows through the period and inserting 2002). .

Section 173 ( 20 U.S.C. 9563 ) is amended—

in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking may and inserting shall

in subparagraph (A), by striking evaluations and inserting high-quality evaluations, including impact evaluations that use rigorous methodologies that permit the strongest possible causal inferences,

in subparagraph (B), by inserting before the semicolon at the end the following: , including programs under part A of such title ( 20 U.S.C. 6311 et seq. )

by striking subparagraph (C)

by redesignating subparagraph (D) as subparagraph (C)

by striking subparagraphs (E) and (G)

by redesignating subparagraph (F) as subparagraph (D)

in subparagraph (D), as redesignated by clause (vii), by striking and at the end and

by inserting after subparagraph (D), as redesignated by clause (vii), the following:

provide evaluation findings in an understandable, easily accessible, and usable format to support program improvement

support the evaluation activities described in section 401 of the Strengthening Education through Research Act that are carried out by the Director and

examine evaluations conducted or supported by others to determine the quality and relevance of the evidence of effectiveness generated by those evaluations, with the approval of the Director

review and supplement Federal education program evaluations, particularly such evaluations by the Department, to determine or enhance the quality and relevance of the evidence generated by those evaluations

conduct implementation evaluations that promote continuous improvement and inform policymaking

evaluate the short- and long-term effects and cost efficiencies across programs assisted or authorized under Federal law and administrated by the Department and

synthesize the results of evaluation studies for and across Federal education programs, policies, and practices.

in subparagraph (A), by striking and at the end

in subparagraph (B), by striking the period and inserting under section 114(h) and and

by adding at the end the following:

be widely disseminated, consistent with section 114(j).

in subsection (b), by striking contracts and inserting grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements .

174. Regional educational laboratories for research, development, dissemination, and evaluation (a) In general

Section 174 ( 20 U.S.C. 9564 ) is amended—

in the section heading, by striking technical assistance and inserting evaluation

by striking The Director and inserting Except as provided in subsection (e)(8), the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner and

by striking contracts and inserting grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements

by striking The Director and inserting the following:

The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner

by striking contracts under this section with research organizations, institutions, agencies, institutions of higher education, and inserting grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under this section with public or private, nonprofit or for-profit research organizations, other organizations, or institutions of higher education,

by striking or individuals,

by striking , including regional entities and all that follows through 107–110)) and

by adding at the end the following:

For purposes of this section, the term eligible applicant means an entity described in paragraph (1).

by striking subsections (d) through (j) and inserting the following:

(1) Submission (A) In general

Each eligible applicant desiring a contract grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this section shall submit an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner may reasonably require.

To ensure that applications submitted under this paragraph are reflective of the needs of the regions to be served, each eligible applicant submitting such an application shall seek input from State educational agencies and local educational agencies in the region that the award will serve, and other individuals with knowledge of the region’s needs.

Each application submitted under paragraph (1) shall contain a plan for the activities of the regional educational laboratory to be established under this section, which shall be updated, modified, and improved, as appropriate, on an ongoing basis, including by using the results of the laboratory’s interim evaluation under subsection (i)(3).

A plan described in subparagraph (A) shall address—

the priorities for applied research, development, evaluations, and wide dissemination established under section 207

the needs of State educational agencies and local educational agencies, on an ongoing basis, using available State and local data and

if available, demonstrated support from State educational agencies and local educational agencies in the region, such as letters of support or signed memoranda of understanding.

In conducting a competition for grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under subsection (a), the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall give priority to eligible applicants that will provide a portion of non-Federal funds to maximize support for activities of the regional educational laboratories to be established under this section.

(e) Awarding grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements

In awarding grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under this section, the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall—

make such an award for not more than a 5-year period

ensure that regional educational laboratories established under this section have strong and effective governance, organization, management, and administration, and employ qualified staff and

ensure that each such laboratory has the flexibility to respond in a timely fashion to the needs of the laboratory’s region, including—

through using the results of the laboratory’s interim evaluation under subsection (i)(3) to improve and modify the activities of the laboratory before the end of the award period and

through sharing preliminary results of the laboratory’s research, as appropriate, to increase the relevance and usefulness of the research.

To ensure coordination and prevent unnecessary duplication of activities among the regions, the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall—

share information about the activities of each regional educational laboratory with each other regional educational laboratory, the Department, the Director, and the National Board for Education Sciences

ensure, where appropriate, that the activities of each regional educational laboratory established under this section also serve national interests

ensure each such regional educational laboratory establishes strong partnerships among practitioners, policymakers, researchers, and others, so that such partnerships are continued in the absence of Federal support and

enable, where appropriate, for such a laboratory to work in a region being served by another laboratory or to carry out a project that extends beyond the region served by the laboratory.

(3) Collaboration with technical assistance providers

Each regional educational laboratory established under this section shall, on an ongoing basis, coordinate its activities, collaborate, and regularly exchange information with the comprehensive centers (established in section 203) in the region in which the center is located, and with comprehensive centers located outside of its region, as appropriate.

In conducting competitions for grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under this section, the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall—

by making information and technical assistance relating to the competition widely available, actively encourage eligible applicants to compete for such an award and

seek input from the chief executive officers of States, chief State school officers, educators, parents, superintendents, and other individuals with knowledge of the needs of the regions to be served by the awards, regarding—

the needs in the regions for applied research, evaluation, development, and wide-dissemination activities authorized by this title and

how such needs may be addressed most effectively.

Before the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner awards a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this section, the Director shall establish measurable performance indicators for assessing the ongoing progress and performance of the regional educational laboratories established with such awards that address the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185.

The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall adhere to the Institute’s system for technical and peer review under section 114(h) in reviewing the applied research activities and research-based reports of the regional educational laboratories.

In determining whether to award a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this section—

to an eligible applicant that previously established a regional educational laboratory under this section, the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall—

consider the results of such laboratory’s summative evaluation under subsection (i)(2), or, if not available, any interim evaluation findings under subsection (i)(3) and

ensure that only such laboratories determined effective in their relevant interim or summative evaluations, as described in subsection (i), are eligible to receive a new grant, contract, or cooperative agreement and

to any eligible applicant, the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall ensure that such applicant has—

a history of effectiveness in conducting high-quality applied research and

the capacity to meet the measurable performance indicators established under paragraph (5).

(8) Flexibility in laboratory number (A) Determination

The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner, in consultation with the regional educational laboratory advisory boards described in subsection (h), may determine that establishing 10 regional educational laboratories is unnecessary, as required in subsection (a), and grant an alternative number of awards or reorganize such laboratories, which may include not basing the awards on the regions described in subsection (b), if—

an insufficient number of regional educational laboratories are meeting the needs of the regions described in subsection (b), as determined by the Commissioner

an insufficient number of laboratories are meeting the measurable performance indicators established under paragraph (5), as determined by the Commissioner and the most recent interim or summative evaluation under subsection (i) or

an insufficient number of eligible applicants have the capacity to meet the measurable performance indicators established under paragraph (5), as determined by the Commissioner.

If the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner uses the determination authority described in subparagraph (A), there shall be no more than 10 regional educational laboratories established.

Each regional educational laboratory established under this section shall—

conduct applied research, development, data analysis, and evaluation activities with State educational agencies, local educational agencies, and, as appropriate, schools funded by the Bureau

widely disseminate such work, consistent with section 114(j) and

develop the capacity of State educational agencies, local educational agencies, and, as appropriate, schools funded by the Bureau to carry out the activities described in paragraphs (1) and (2).

To carry out the mission described in subsection (f), each regional educational laboratory established under this section shall carry out the following activities:

Conduct, widely disseminate, and promote utilization of applied research, development activities, evaluations, data analysis, and other scientifically valid research.

Develop and improve the plan for the laboratory under subsection (d)(2) for serving the region of the laboratory, and as appropriate, national needs, on an ongoing basis, which shall include seeking input and incorporating feedback from the representatives of State educational agencies and local educational agencies in the region, and other individuals with knowledge of the region’s needs.

Ensure research and related products are relevant and responsive to the needs of the region.

(h) Regional educational laboratory advisory board

Each regional educational laboratory established under this section may establish an advisory board that shall support the priorities of such laboratory.

Each advisory board established under paragraph (1) shall advise the regional educational laboratory—

concerning the activities described in subsection (g)

on strategies for monitoring and addressing the educational needs of the region, on an ongoing basis, and as appropriate, national needs

on maintaining a high standard of quality in the performance of the laboratory’s activities, especially in meeting the measurable performance indicators established under subsection (e)(5)

on carrying out the laboratory’s duties in a manner that promotes progress toward improving student academic achievement

on the activities undertaken by the comprehensive center in the region, other centers, as appropriate, and other laboratories to align the work of such entities, reduce redundancy, and increase collaboration and resource-sharing in such activities and

on joint activities with other comprehensive centers or laboratories that would meet the needs of multiple regions.

(3) Composition (A) In general

Each advisory board shall—

include the chief State school officer, or such officer’s designee, or other State official, of States within the region of the laboratory who have primary responsibility under State law for elementary and secondary education in the State

include representatives of local educational agencies, including rural and urban local educational agencies, that represent the geographic diversity of the region

include not less than 1 representative from an advisory board of a comprehensive center serving the region, if applicable.

The membership of each regional educational laboratory advisory board may include the following:

Representatives of institutions of higher education.

Practicing educators, including classroom teachers, school leaders, administrators, school board members, and other local school officials.

Representatives of business.

In choosing individuals for membership on a regional educational laboratory advisory board, the regional educational laboratory shall consult with, and solicit recommendations from, the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner, the chief executive officers of States, chief State school officers, local educational agencies, and other education stakeholders within the applicable region.

The total number of members on each regional educational laboratory advisory board who are selected under clauses (ii) and (iii) of paragraph (3)(A), in the aggregate, shall exceed the total number of members who are selected under paragraph (3)(B), collectively.

The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall—

provide for ongoing summative and interim evaluations described in paragraphs (2) and (3), respectively, of each of the regional educational laboratories established under this section in carrying out the full range of duties described in this section and

transmit the results of such evaluations, through appropriate means, to the appropriate congressional committees, the Director, and the public.

The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall ensure each regional educational laboratory established under this section is evaluated by an independent entity at the end of the period of the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement that established such laboratory, and such evaluation shall—

be completed in a timely fashion

assess how well the laboratory is meeting the measurable performance indicators established under subsection (e)(5) and

consider the extent to which the laboratory ensures that the activities of such laboratory are relevant and useful to the work of State and local practitioners and policymakers.

The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall ensure each regional educational laboratory established under this section is evaluated at the midpoint of the period of the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement that established such laboratory, and such evaluation shall—

assess how well such laboratory is meeting the performance indicators described in subsection (e)(5) and

be used to improve the effectiveness of such laboratory in carrying out its plan under subsection (d)(2).

(j) Continuation of awards Recompetition

The Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall continue awards made to each eligible applicant for the support of regional educational laboratories established under this section prior to the date of enactment of the Strengthening Education through Research Act , as such awards were in effect on the day before the date of enactment of such Act, for the duration of those awards, in accordance with the terms and agreements of such awards.

Not later than the end of the period of the awards described in paragraph (1), the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall—

hold a competition to make grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under this section to eligible applicants, which may include eligible applicants that held awards described in paragraph (1) and

in determining whether to select an eligible applicant that held an award described in paragraph (1) for an award under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, consider the results of the summative evaluation under subsection (i)(2) of the laboratory established with the eligible applicant’s award described in paragraph (1).

by redesignating subsections (m), (n), and (o) as subsections (l), (m), and (n), respectively

in subsection (l), as redesignated by paragraph (6), by inserting and local after achieve State

by striking subsection (m), as redesignated by paragraph (6), and inserting the following:

Each regional educational laboratory established under this section shall submit to the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner an annual report containing such information as the Commissioner may require, but which shall include, at a minimum, the following:

A summary of the laboratory’s activities and products developed during the previous year.

A listing of the State educational agencies, local educational agencies, and schools the laboratory assisted during the previous year.

Using the measurable performance indicators established under subsection (e)(5), a description of how well the laboratory is meeting educational needs of the region served by the laboratory.

Any changes to the laboratory’s plan under subsection (d)(2) to improve its activities in the remaining years of the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

by adding at the end the following:

(o) Appropriations reservation

Of the amounts appropriated under section 194(a), the Evaluation and Regional Assistance Commissioner shall reserve 16.13 percent of such funds to carry out this section, of which the Commissioner shall use not less than 25 percent to serve rural areas (including schools funded by the Bureau which are located in rural areas).

The table of contents in section 1 of the Act of November 5, 2002 ( Public Law 107–279 116 Stat. 1940), is amended by striking the item relating to section 174 and inserting the following:

Sec. 174. Regional educational laboratories for research, development, dissemination, and evaluation. .

E National Center for Special Education Research 175. Establishment

Section 175(b) ( 20 U.S.C. 9567(b) ) is amended—

in paragraph (1), by striking and children and inserting children, and youth

in paragraph (2), by striking and at the end

in paragraph (3), by striking the period at the end and inserting a semicolon and

by adding at the end the following:

to promote quality and integrity through the use of accepted practices of scientific inquiry to obtain knowledge and understanding of the validity of education theories, practices, or conditions with respect to special education research and evaluation described in paragraphs (1) through (3) and

to promote scientifically valid research findings in special education that may provide the basis for improving academic instruction and lifelong learning.

176. Commissioner for Special Education Research

Section 176 ( 20 U.S.C. 9567a ) is amended by inserting and youth after children .

Section 177 ( 20 U.S.C. 9567b ) is amended—

in paragraph (1)(A), by inserting and youth after children

in paragraph (2), by striking scientifically based educational practices and inserting educational practices, including the use of technology based on scientifically valid research,

by striking scientifically based and

by inserting are based on scientifically valid research and after interventions that

in paragraph (10), by inserting before the semicolon the following: , including how secondary school credentials are related to postsecondary and employment outcomes

by redesignating paragraphs (11) through (15) and paragraphs (16) and (17) as paragraphs (12) through (16), respectively, and paragraphs (18) and (19), respectively

by inserting after paragraph (10), the following:

examine the participation and outcomes of students with disabilities in secondary and postsecondary career and technical education programs

in paragraph (14), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), by inserting and professional development after preparation

in paragraph (16), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), by striking help parents and inserting examine the methods by which parents may

by inserting after paragraph (16), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), the following:

assist the Board in the preparation and dissemination of each evaluation report under section 116(d)

in paragraph (18), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), by striking and at the end

by striking paragraph (19), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), and inserting the following:

examine the needs of children with disabilities who are English learners, are gifted and talented, or have other unique learning needs and

by adding at the end the following:

examine innovations in the field of special education, such as multi-tiered systems of support.

in the matter preceding paragraph (1)—

by inserting for the activities of the Special Education Research Center after a research plan and

by striking Services, that— and inserting Services, and, subject to the approval of the Director, implement the research plan. The research plan shall be a plan that—

in paragraph (1), by inserting described in section 175(b) after Center

by striking paragraph (2) and inserting the following:

is carried out, and, as appropriate, updated and modified, including by using the results of the Special Education Research Center’s most recent evaluation report under section 116(d)

by redesignating paragraphs (3), (4), and (6) as paragraphs (4), (5), and (7), respectively

by inserting after paragraph (2) the following:

provides for research that addresses significant questions of practice where such research is lacking

in paragraph (5), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), by striking and types of children with and inserting , student subgroups, and types of and

by inserting after paragraph (5), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), the following:

describes how the Special Education Research Center will use the performance management system described in section 185 to assess and improve the activities of the Center and

in paragraph (1), by striking Director and inserting Special Education Research Commissioner

by striking paragraph (3) and inserting the following:

(3) Applications (A) In general

An eligible applicant that wishes to receive a grant, or enter into a contract or cooperative agreement, under this section shall submit an application to the Special Education Research Commissioner at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Special Education Research Commissioner may require.

An application submitted under subparagraph (A) shall describe how the eligible applicant will address and demonstrate progress on the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185, with respect to the activities that will be carried out under such grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

by adding at the end the following:

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements under this section may be awarded or entered into, on a competitive basis, for a period of not more than 5 years, and may be renewed at the discretion of the Special Education Research Commissioner for an additional period of not more than 2 years if the recipient demonstrates progress on the requirements of the performance management system described in section 185, with respect to the activities carried out under the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement received or entered into under this section.

by striking subsection (e) and inserting the following:

The Special Education Research Center shall synthesize and, consistent with section 114(j), widely disseminate and promote utilization of the findings and results of special education research conducted or supported by the Special Education Research Center.

in subsection (f), by striking part such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2010. and inserting the following:

for fiscal year 2016, $54,000,000

for fiscal year 2017, $55,242,000

for fiscal year 2018, $56,512,566

for fiscal year 2019, $57,812,355

for fiscal year 2020, $59,142,039 and

for fiscal year 2021, $66,922,118.

F General provisions 181. Prohibitions

Section 182 ( 20 U.S.C. 9572 ) is amended—

in subsection (b), by inserting specific academic achievement or content standards or assessments, after the curriculum, and

in subsection (c), by striking an elementary school or secondary school and inserting early education, or in an elementary school, secondary school, or institution of higher education .

Section 183 ( 20 U.S.C. 9573 ) is amended—

by striking their families, and information with respect to individual schools, and inserting and their families and

by inserting before the period at the end the following: , and that any disclosed information with respect to individual schools not reveal such individually identifiable information

in subsection (d)(2), by inserting , including voluntary and uncompensated services under section 190 after providing services and

in subsection (e)(1), in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by inserting and Director after Secretary .

Section 184 ( 20 U.S.C. 9574 ) is amended by striking use of the Internet and inserting electronic means, such as posting in an easily accessible manner on the Institute’s website .

184. Performance management

Section 185 ( 20 U.S.C. 9575 ) is amended to read as follows:

185. Performance management

The Director shall establish a system for managing the performance of all activities authorized under this title to promote continuous improvement of the activities and to ensure the effective use of Federal funds by—

developing and using measurable performance indicators, including timelines, to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of the activities

using the performance indicators described in paragraph (1) to inform funding decisions, including the awarding and continuation of all grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements under this title

establishing and improving formal feedback mechanisms to—

anticipate and meet stakeholder needs and

incorporate, on an ongoing basis, the feedback of such stakeholders into the activities authorized under this title and

promoting the wide dissemination and utilization, consistent with section 114(j), of all information, products, and publications of the Institute.

Section 186(b) ( 20 U.S.C. 9576(b) ) is amended by striking any information to be published under this section before publication and inserting any publication under this section before the public release of such publication .

Sections 187 ( 20 U.S.C. 9577 ) and 193 ( 20 U.S.C. 9583 ) are repealed.

The table of contents in section 1 of the Act of November 5, 2002 ( Public Law 107–279 116 Stat. 1940), is amended by striking the items relating to sections 187 and 193.

Section 189 ( 20 U.S.C. 9579 ) is amended—

by inserting and the mission of each National Education Center authorized under this title after related to education and

by striking historically Black colleges and universities and inserting minority-serving institutions .

188. Authorization of appropriations

Section 194 ( 20 U.S.C. 9584 ) is amended—

by striking subsection (a) and inserting the following:

There are authorized to be appropriated to administer and carry out this title (except part E)—

for fiscal year 2016, $337,343,000

for fiscal year 2017, $345,101,889

for fiscal year 2018, $353,039,232

for fiscal year 2019, $361,159,135

for fiscal year 2020, $369,465,795 and

for fiscal year 2021, $376,225,846.

by striking subsection (b) and inserting the following:

Of the amounts appropriated under subsection (a) for each fiscal year—

not less than the amount provided to the National Center for Education Statistics (as such Center was in existence on the day before the date of enactment of the Strengthening Education through Research Act ) for fiscal year 2015 shall be provided to the National Center for Education Statistics, as authorized under part C and

not more than the lesser of 2 percent of such appropriated amounts or $2,000,000 shall be made available to carry out section 116 (relating to the National Board for Education Sciences).

G Technical and conforming amendments 191. Technical and conforming amendments to other laws (a) Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006

Section 3(25) of the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006 ( 20 U.S.C. 2302(25) ) is amended by striking using scientifically based research standards, as defined in section 102 and inserting in accordance with the principles of scientific research, as defined in section 102 .

(b) Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

Section 9529(b) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 7909(b) ) is amended by striking section 153(a)(5) and inserting section 153(a)(6) .

(c) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

Section 681(a)(1) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ( 20 U.S.C. 1481(a)(1) ) is amended by striking section 178(c) and inserting section 177(c) .

II EDUCATIONAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE 201. References

Except as otherwise expressly provided, whenever in this title an amendment or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal of, a section or other provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section or other provision of the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 ( 20 U.S.C. 9601 et seq. ).

Section 202 ( 20 U.S.C. 9601 ) is amended—

by redesignating paragraph (2) as paragraph (3) and

by inserting after paragraph (1) the following:

The term school leader has the meaning given the term in section 102.

203. Comprehensive centers

Section 203 ( 20 U.S.C. 9602 ) is amended—

by striking subsection (a) and inserting the following:

Subject to paragraph (3) and except as provided in subsection (b)(5), the Secretary shall award 17 grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements to eligible applicants to establish comprehensive centers.

The mission of the comprehensive centers is to provide State educational agencies and local educational agencies technical assistance, analysis, and training to build their capacity in implementing the requirements of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq. ) and other Federal education laws, and research-based practices.

In awarding grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under paragraph (1), the Secretary—

shall establish at least one comprehensive center for each of the 10 geographic regions served by the regional educational laboratories established under section 941(h) of the Educational Research, Development, Dissemination, and Improvement Act of 1994 ( 20 U.S.C. 6041(h) ) (as such provision existed on the day before the date of enactment of this Act)

may establish additional comprehensive centers—

for one or more of the regions described in subparagraph (A) or

to serve the Nation as a whole by providing technical assistance on a particular content area of importance to the Nation, as determined by the Secretary and

may make such arrangements as the Secretary determines necessary to ensure that the Bureau of Indian Education and States or local educational agencies serving significant numbers of American Indian, Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian students have access to services provided under this section.

In the case of a comprehensive center established to serve the Nation as described in paragraph (3)(B)(ii), the Nation shall be considered to be a region served by such Center.

A grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this section may be awarded, on a competitive basis, for a period of not more than 5 years.

The Secretary shall ensure that each comprehensive center established under this section has the ability to respond in a timely fashion to the needs of State educational agencies and local educational agencies, including through using the results of the center’s interim evaluation under section 204(c), to improve and modify the activities of the center before the end of the award period.

by inserting , contracts, or cooperative agreements after Grants

by striking research organizations, institutions, agencies, institutions of higher education, and inserting public or private, nonprofit or for-profit research organizations, other organizations, or institutions of higher education,

by striking , or individuals,

by striking subsection (f) and inserting subsection (e) and

by striking , including regional and all that follows through 107–110)) and

by striking paragraphs (2) and (3) and inserting the following:

In conducting competitions for grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under this section, the Secretary shall—

by making widely available information and technical assistance relating to the competition, actively encourage eligible applicants to compete for such awards and

seek input from chief executive officers of States, chief State school officers, educators, parents, superintendents, and other individuals with knowledge of the needs of the regions to be served by the awards, regarding—

the needs in the regions for technical assistance authorized under this title and

how such needs may be addressed most effectively.

Before awarding a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this section, the Secretary shall establish measurable performance indicators to be used to assess the ongoing progress and performance of the comprehensive centers to be established under this title that address paragraphs (1) through (3) of the performance management system described in section 185.

In determining whether to award or enter into a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this section—

to an eligible applicant that previously established a comprehensive center under this section, the Secretary shall—

consider the results of such center’s summative evaluation under section 204(b) or, if not available, any interim evaluation results under section 204(c) and

ensure that only centers determined effective in the centers' relevant interim or summative evaluations, as described in section 204, are eligible to receive a new grant, contract, or cooperative agreement and

to any eligible applicant, the Secretary shall ensure that such applicant has—

a history of effectiveness in providing high-quality technical assistance and

the capacity to meet the measurable performance indicators established under paragraph (3).

(5) Flexibility in comprehensive center number (A) Determination

The Secretary, in consultation with the comprehensive center advisory boards described in subsection (f), may determine that establishing 17 comprehensive centers under this section is unnecessary, as required in subsection (a)(1), and grant an alternative number of awards or reorganize such centers, which may include organizing the centers around content area instead of by the regions described in subsection (a)(3), if—

an insufficient number of such comprehensive centers are meeting the needs of the regions described in paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (a), as determined by the Secretary

an insufficient number of such comprehensive centers are meeting the measurable performance indicators established under paragraph (3), as determined by the Secretary and the most recent interim or summative evaluation under section 204 or

an insufficient number of eligible applicants have the capacity to meet the measurable performance indicators established under paragraph (3), as determined by the Secretary.

The Secretary shall not use the determination authority described in subparagraph (A) to establish more than 17 comprehensive centers under this section.

(6) Continuation of awards (A) Continuation of awards

The Secretary shall continue awards made to each eligible applicant for the support of comprehensive centers established under this section prior to the date of enactment of the Strengthening Education through Research Act , as such awards were in effect on the day before the date of enactment of such Act, for the duration of those awards, in accordance with the terms and agreements of such awards.

Not later than the end of the period of the awards described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall—

hold a competition to make grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under this section to eligible applicants, which may include eligible applicants that held awards described in subparagraph (A) and

in determining whether to select an eligible applicant that held an award described in subparagraph (A) for an award under clause (i) of this subparagraph, consider the results of the summative evaluation under section 204(b) of the center established with the eligible applicant’s award described in subparagraph (A).

(7) Eligible applicant defined

For purposes of this section, the term eligible applicant means an entity described in paragraph (1).

by striking subsection (c) and inserting the following:

(1) Submission (A) In general

Each eligible applicant seeking a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this section shall submit an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such additional information as the Secretary may reasonably require.

To ensure that applications submitted under this paragraph are reflective of the needs of the regions to be served, each eligible applicant submitting such an application shall seek input from—

State educational agencies and local educational agencies in the region that the award will serve and

other individuals with knowledge of the region’s needs.

Each application submitted under paragraph (1) shall contain a plan for the comprehensive center to be established under this section, which shall be updated, modified, and improved, as appropriate, on an ongoing basis, including by using the results of the center’s interim evaluation under section 204(c).

A plan described in subparagraph (A) shall address—

the priorities for technical assistance established under section 207

the needs of State educational agencies and local educational agencies, on an ongoing basis, using available State and local data, including how the needs of schools identified for improvement and schools and local educational agencies with a high percentage or number of low-income students will be prioritized and served and

if available, demonstrated support from State educational agencies and local educational agencies, such as letters of support or signed memoranda of understanding.

In conducting a competition for grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements under subsection (a), the Secretary shall give priority to eligible applicants that will provide a portion of non-Federal funds to maximize support for activities of the comprehensive centers to be established under this section.

in subsection (d), by inserting the number of low-performing schools in the region, after economically disadvantaged students,

by striking subsections (e), (g), and (h)

by redesignating subsection (f) as subsection (e)

in subsection (e), as redesignated by paragraph (6)—

in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking support dissemination and technical assistance activities by and inserting support State educational agencies and local educational agencies, including by

in clause (i), by inserting and other Federal education laws before the semicolon

in the matter preceding subclause (I), by striking and assessment tools and inserting , assessment tools, and other educational strategies

in subclause (I), by striking mathematics, science, and inserting mathematics and science, which may include computer science or engineering, and

in subclause (III), by inserting , including innovative tools and methods before the semicolon and

by striking clause (iii) and inserting the following:

the replication and adaptation of exemplary practices and innovative methods that have an evidence base of effectiveness and

by inserting , consistent with section 114(j), after disseminating and

by striking (as described and all that follows through is located and

by striking subparagraph (C) and inserting the following:

ensuring activities carried out under this section are relevant and responsive to the needs of the region being served.

by inserting , on an ongoing basis, after this section shall and

by striking in which the center is located and inserting served by the center or other regional educational laboratories or comprehensive centers, as appropriate and

by adding at the end the following:

(f) Comprehensive center advisory board

Each comprehensive center established under this section may establish an advisory board that shall support the priorities of such center.

Each advisory board established under paragraph (1) shall advise the comprehensive center—

concerning the activities described in subsection (e)

on strategies for monitoring and addressing the educational needs of the region being served on an ongoing basis and, as appropriate, national needs

on maintaining a high standard of quality in the performance of the center's activities, especially in meeting the measurable performance indicators established under subsection (b)(3)

on carrying out the center's duties in a manner that promotes progress toward improving student academic achievement

on the activities undertaken by regional educational laboratories of the region being served, other regional educational laboratories, as appropriate, and other comprehensive centers to align the work of the laboratories and centers, reduce redundancy, and increase collaboration and resource-sharing in such activities and

on joint activities, with other comprehensive centers or regional educational laboratories from other regions, that would meet the needs of multiple regions.

(3) Composition (A) In general

Each advisory board shall—

include the chief State school officer, or such officer’s designee, or other State official, of States within the region served by the comprehensive center who have primary responsibility under State law for elementary and secondary education in the State

include representatives of local educational agencies, including rural and urban local educational agencies, that represent the geographic diversity of the region

include not less than 1 representative from the advisory board of a regional educational laboratory in the region being served by the comprehensive center.

The membership of each comprehensive center advisory board may include the following:

Representatives of institutions of higher education.

Practicing educators, including classroom teachers, school leaders, administrators, school board members, and other local school officials.

Representatives of business.

In choosing individuals for membership on a comprehensive center advisory board, the comprehensive center shall consult with, and solicit recommendations from, the Secretary, chief executive officers of States, chief State school officers, local educational agencies, and other education stakeholders within the applicable region.

The total number of members on each board who are selected under clauses (ii) and (iii) of paragraph (3)(A), in the aggregate, shall exceed the total number of members who are selected under paragraph (3)(B), collectively.

(g) Report to the Secretary

Each comprehensive center established under this section shall submit to the Secretary an annual report, at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require, which shall include the following:

A summary of the center’s activities and products developed during the previous year.

A listing of the State educational agencies, local educational agencies, and schools the center assisted during the previous year.

Using the measurable performance indicators established under subsection (b)(3), a description of how well the center is meeting educational needs of the region served by the center.

Any changes to the center’s plan under subsection (c)(2) to improve its activities in the remaining years of the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

Section 204 ( 20 U.S.C. 9603 ) is amended to read as follows:

204. Evaluations (a) In general

provide for ongoing summative and interim evaluations described in subsections (b) and (c), respectively, of each of the comprehensive centers established under this title in carrying out the full range of duties of the center under this title and

transmit the results of such evaluations, through appropriate means, to the appropriate congressional committees, the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences, and the public.

The Secretary shall ensure each comprehensive center established under this title is evaluated by an independent entity at the end of the period of the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement that established such center, which shall—

be completed in a timely fashion

assess how well the center is meeting the measurable performance indicators established under section 203(b)(3) and

consider the extent to which the center ensures that the technical assistance of such center is relevant and useful to the work of State and local practitioners and policymakers.

The Secretary shall ensure that each comprehensive center established under this title is evaluated at the midpoint of the period of the grant, contract, or cooperative agreement that established such center, which shall—

assess how well such center is meeting the measurable performance indicators established under section 203(b)(3) and

be used to improve the effectiveness of such center in carrying out its plan under section 203(c)(2).

Section 205 ( 20 U.S.C. 9604 ) is repealed.

The table of contents in section 1 of the Act of November 5, 2002 ( Public Law 107–279 116 Stat. 1940), is amended by striking the item relating to section 205.

206. Regional advisory committees (a) Repeal

Section 206 ( 20 U.S.C. 9605 ) is repealed.

The table of contents in section 1 of the Act of November 5, 2002 ( Public Law 107–279 116 Stat. 1940), is amended by striking the item relating to section 206.

Section 207 ( 20 U.S.C. 9606 ) is amended—

by inserting Director and before Secretary shall establish

by striking of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002

by striking of this title

by striking to address, taking onto account the regional assessments conducted under section 206 and other and inserting , respectively, using the results of and

by striking relevant regional and all that follows through Secretary deems appropriate and inserting relevant regional and national surveys of educational needs .

208. Grant program for statewide, longitudinal data systems

Section 208 ( 20 U.S.C. 9607 ) is amended—

by inserting before the period at the end the following: , the Higher Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 1001 et seq. ), and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ( 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq. ) and

by adding at the end the following: State educational agencies receiving a grant under this section may provide subgrants to local educational agencies to improve the capacity of local educational agencies to carry out the activities authorized under this section.

by redesignating subsections (c), (d), and (e) as subsections (d), (e), and (g), respectively

by inserting after subsection (b), the following:

Before awarding a grant under this section, the Secretary shall establish measurable performance indicators—

to be used to assess the ongoing progress and performance of State educational agencies receiving a grant under this section and

that address paragraphs (1) through (3) of the performance management system described in section 185.

in subsection (d), as redesignated by paragraph (2)—

in paragraph (1), by striking , promotes linkages across States,

in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by inserting supports school improvement and after data that

in subparagraph (A), by striking and other reporting requirements and close achievement gaps and and inserting and other reporting requirements, close achievement gaps, and improve teaching and school leadership

in subparagraph (B), by striking and close achievement gaps and and by inserting , close achievement gaps, and improve teaching and school leadership and and

by inserting after subparagraph (B) the following:

to align statewide, longitudinal data systems from early education through postsecondary education (including pre-service preparation programs), and the workforce, consistent with privacy protections under section 183

by striking paragraph (3) and inserting the following:

ensures the protection of student privacy, and includes a review of how State educational agencies, local educational agencies, and others that will have access to the statewide, longitudinal data systems under this section will adhere to Federal privacy laws and protections, consistent with section 183, in the building, maintenance, and use of such data systems

ensures State educational agencies receiving a grant under this section support professional development that builds the capacity of teachers and school leaders to use data effectively and

gives priority to State educational agencies that leverage the use of statewide, longitudinal data systems to improve student achievement and growth, including such State educational agencies that—

meet the voluntary standards and guidelines described in section 153(a)(5)

define the roles of State educational agencies, local educational agencies, and others in providing timely access to data under the statewide, longitudinal data systems, consistent with privacy protections in section 183 and

demonstrate the capacity to share teacher and school leader performance data, including student achievement and growth data, with local educational agencies and teacher and school leader preparation programs.

by inserting after subsection (e), as redesignated by paragraph (2), the following:

The Secretary may renew a grant awarded to a State educational agency under this section for a period not to exceed 3 years, if the State educational agency has demonstrated progress on the measurable performance indicators established under subsection (c).

by striking subsection (g), as redesignated by paragraph (2), and inserting the following:

Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Strengthening Education through Research Act , the Secretary shall prepare and make publicly available a report on the implementation and effectiveness of the activities carried out by State educational agencies receiving a grant under this section, including—

information on progress in the development and use of statewide, longitudinal data systems described in this section

information on best practices and areas for improvement in such development and use and

how the State educational agencies are adhering to Federal privacy laws and protections in the building, maintenance, and use of such data systems.

Every succeeding 3 years after the report is made publicly available under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall prepare and make publicly available a report on the implementation and effectiveness of the activities carried out by State educational agencies receiving a grant under this section, including—

information on the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of paragraph (1) and

the progress, in the aggregate, State educational agencies are making on the measurable performance indicators established under subsection (c).

209. Authorization of appropriations

Section 209 ( 20 U.S.C. 9608 ) is amended to read as follows:

209. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this title—

for fiscal year 2016, $82,984,000

for fiscal year 2017, $84,892,632

for fiscal year 2018, $86,845,163

for fiscal year 2019, $88,842,601

for fiscal year 2020, $90,885,981 and

for fiscal year 2021, $92,548,906.

Except as otherwise expressly provided, whenever in this title an amendment or repeal is expressed in terms of an amendment to, or repeal of, a section or other provision, the reference shall be considered to be made to a section or other provision of the National Assessment of Educational Progress Authorization Act ( 20 U.S.C. 9621 et seq. ).

302. National assessment governing board

Section 302 ( 20 U.S.C. 9621 ) is amended—

in subsection (a), by striking shall formulate policy guidelines and inserting shall oversee and set policies, in a manner consistent with subsection (e) and accepted professional standards,

by striking principals and inserting leaders and

by striking principal both places it appears and inserting leader

in subsection (c), by striking paragraph (4)

in subparagraph (A), by inserting the Assessment Board after consultation with before organizations and

by striking Each organization submitting nominations to the Secretary with and inserting With and

by inserting , the Assessment Board after particular vacancy and

by striking that each organization described in paragraph (1)(A) submit additional nominations and inserting additional nominations from the Assessment Board or each organization described in paragraph (1)(A) and

by striking such organization and inserting the Assessment Board and

by inserting in consultation with the Commissioner for Education Statistics, before select

by inserting and grades or ages before to be and

by inserting , and determine the year in which such assessments will be conducted after assessed

in subparagraph (D), by inserting school leaders, after teachers,

in subparagraph (E), by striking design and inserting provide input on

by striking and at the end of subparagraph (I)

by redesignating subparagraph (J) as subparagraph (K)

by inserting after subparagraph (I), the following:

provide input to the Director on annual budget requests for the National Assessment of Educational Progress and

in subparagraph (K), as redesignated by subparagraph (E)—

by striking plan and execute the initial public release of and

by inserting release the initial before National and

in the matter following subparagraph (K), as redesignated by subparagraph (E), by striking subparagraph (J) and inserting subparagraph (K) .

303. National assessment of educational progress

Section 303 ( 20 U.S.C. 9622 ) is amended—

in subsection (a), by striking with the advice of the Assessment Board established under section 302 and inserting in a manner consistent with accepted professional standards and the policies set forth by the Assessment Board under section 302(a)

in subparagraph (D), by inserting and consistent with section 302(e)(1)(A) after resources allow

by striking limited English proficiency and inserting English learner status and

by striking and at the end of subparagraph (G)

in subparagraph (H), by striking the period at the end and inserting and and

by adding at the end the following:

determine, after taking into account section 302(e)(1)(I), the content of initial and subsequent reports of all assessments authorized under this section and ensure that such reports are valid and reliable.

in paragraph (5)(C), by striking limited English proficiency and inserting English learner status

in subparagraph (B), by striking of Education after Secretary and

by striking Chairman of the House before Committee on Education

by inserting of the House of Representatives after Workforce

by striking Chairman of the Senate before Committee on Health and

by inserting of the Senate after Pensions

in subsection (d)(1), by inserting before the period, the following: , except as required under section 1112(b)(1)(F) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6312(b)(1)(F) )

in paragraph (1), by striking or age and

by striking shall and all that follows through be and insert shall be

by redesignating subclauses (I) and (II) as clauses (i) and (ii), respectively (and by moving the margins 2 ems to the left) and

in clause (ii), as redesignated by subclause (II), by striking , or the age of the students, as the case may be

by striking After the determinations described in subparagraph (A), devising and inserting The Assessment Board shall, in making the determination described in subparagraph (A), use and

by inserting , providing for the active participation of teachers, school leaders, curriculum specialists, local school administrators, parents, and concerned members of the general public after approach and

in subparagraph (D), by inserting Assessment before Board and

in the heading, by striking affairs and inserting education and

by striking Affairs and inserting Education .

Section 304 ( 20 U.S.C. 9623 ) is amended by striking paragraphs (1) and (2) and inserting the following:

The terms elementary school , local educational agency , and secondary school have the meanings given those terms in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 7801 ).

The term Director means the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences.

The term school leader has the meaning given the term in section 102.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of Education.

The term State means each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Section 305(a) ( 20 U.S.C. 9624(a) ) is amended to read as follows:

There are authorized to be appropriated—

$8,235,000 to carry out section 302 (relating to the National Assessment Governing Board) and

$129,000,000 to carry out section 303 (relating to the National Assessment of Educational Progress)

$8,424,405 to carry out section 302 (relating to the National Assessment Governing Board) and

$131,967,000 to carry out section 303 (relating to the National Assessment of Educational Progress)

$8,618,166 to carry out section 302 (relating to the National Assessment Governing Board) and

$135,002,241 to carry out section 303 (relating to the National Assessment of Educational Progress)

$8,816,384 to carry out section 302 (relating to the National Assessment Governing Board) and

$138,107,293 to carry out section 303 (relating to the National Assessment of Educational Progress)

$9,019,161 to carry out section 302 (relating to the National Assessment Governing Board) and

$141,283,760 to carry out section 303 (relating to the National Assessment of Educational Progress) and

$9,184,183 to carry out section 302 (relating to the National Assessment Governing Board) and

$143,868,805 to carry out section 303 (relating to the National Assessment of Educational Progress).

The Institute of Education Sciences shall be the primary entity for conducting research on and evaluations of Federal education programs within the Department of Education to ensure the rigor and independence of such research and evaluation.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq. ) related to evaluation, the Secretary of Education, in consultation with the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences—

may, for purposes of carrying out the activities described in paragraph (2)(B)—

reserve not more than 0.5 percent of the total amount of funds appropriated for each program authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq. ), other than part A of title I of such Act ( 20 U.S.C. 6311 et seq. ) and section 1501 of such Act ( 20 U.S.C. 6491 ) and

reserve, in the manner described in subparagraph (B), an amount equal to not more than 0.1 percent of the total amount of funds appropriated for—

part A of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6311 et seq. ) and

section 1501 of such Act ( 20 U.S.C. 6491 ) and

in reserving the amount described in subparagraph (A)(ii)—

shall reserve not more than the total amount of funds appropriated for section 1501 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6491 ) and

may, in a case in which the total amount of funds appropriated for such section 1501 ( 20 U.S.C. 6491 ) is less than the amount described in subparagraph (A)(ii), reserve the amount of funds appropriated for part A of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6311 et seq. ) that is needed for the sum of the total amount of funds appropriated for such section 1501 ( 20 U.S.C. 6491 ) and such amount of funds appropriated for such part A of title I ( 20 U.S.C. 6311 et seq. ) to equal the amount described in subparagraph (A)(ii).

If funds are reserved under paragraph (1)—

neither the Secretary of Education nor the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences shall—

carry out evaluations under section 1501 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6491 ) or

reserve funds for evaluation activities under section 3111(c)(1)(C) of such Act ( 20 U.S.C. 6821(c)(1)(C) ) and

the Secretary of Education, in consultation with the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences—

shall use the funds reserved under paragraph (1) to carry out high-quality evaluations (consistent with the requirements of section 173(a) of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 ( 20 U.S.C. 9563(a) ), as amended by this Act, and the evaluation plan described in subsection (c) of this section) of programs authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq. ) and

may use the funds reserved under paragraph (1) to—

increase the usefulness of the evaluations conducted under clause (i) to promote continuous improvement of programs under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq. ) or

assist grantees of such programs in collecting and analyzing data and other activities related to conducting high-quality evaluations under clause (i).

The Secretary of Education or the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences shall disseminate evaluation findings, consistent with section 114(j) of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 ( 20 U.S.C. 9514(j) ), as amended by this Act, of evaluations carried out under paragraph (2)(B)(i).

The Secretary of Education, in consultation with the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences—

may consolidate the funds reserved under paragraph (1) for purposes of carrying out the activities under paragraph (2)(B) and

shall not be required to evaluate under paragraph (2)(B)(i) each program authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 ( 20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq. ) each year.

The Director of the Institute of Education Sciences, in consultation with the Secretary of Education, shall, on a biennial basis, develop, submit to Congress, and make publicly available an evaluation plan, that—

describes the specific activities that will be carried out under subsection (b)(2)(B) for the 2-year period applicable to the plan, and the timelines of such activities

contains the results of the activities carried out under subsection (b)(2)(B) for the most recent 2-year period and


AMENDMENT XXI

Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.

Section 1.

The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2.

The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


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Origins of the Date

The Gemara (the later, interpretive layer of the Talmud) attempts to find the origin of this date as a special joyous day, and offers several explanations. One of them is that on this day the Biblical &ldquotribes of Israel were permitted to mingle with each other,&rdquo namely: to marry women from other tribes (Talmud, Ta&rsquoanit 30b). This explanation is somewhat surprising, since nowhere in the Bible is there a prohibition on &ldquointermarriage&rdquo among the 12 tribes of Israel. This Talmudic source probably is alluding to a story in the book of Judges (chapter 21): After a civil war between the tribe of Benjamin and other Israelite tribes, the tribes vowed not to intermarry with men of the tribe of Benjamin.

It should be noted that Tu B&rsquoAv, like several Jewish holidays (Passover, Sukkot, Tu Bishvat) begins on the night between the 14th and 15th day of the Hebrew month, since this is the night of a full moon in our lunar calendar. Linking the night of a full moon with romance, love, and fertility is not uncommon in ancient cultures.

For almost 19 centuries &mdash between the destruction of Jerusalem and the re-establishment of Jewish independence in the State of Israel in 1948 &mdash the only commemoration of Tu B&rsquoAv was that the morning prayer service did not include the penitence prayer (Tahanun).

In recent decades Israeli civil culture promotes festivals of singing and dancing on the night of Tu B&rsquoAv. The entertainment and beauty industries work overtime on this date. It has no formal legal status as a holiday &mdash it is a regular workday &mdash nor has the Israeli rabbinate initiated any addition to the liturgy or called for the introduction of any ancient religious practices. The cultural gap between Israeli secular society and the Orthodox rabbinate makes it unlikely that these two will find a common denominator in the celebration of this ancient/modern holiday in the foreseeable future.


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