The Kennedy Family Secret That Helped Inspire the Special Olympics

The Kennedy Family Secret That Helped Inspire the Special Olympics

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The Special Olympics, which recognizes the athletic potential of people with intellectual disabilities, is one of the most recognizable and respected charitable organizations in the United States. But without the tragedy sustained by a member of the Kennedy family with an intellectual disability, it may never have gotten its start.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver, one of John F. Kennedy’s sisters, founded the Special Olympics. And some of her inspiration came from a less recognized member of the Kennedy family: her older sister Rosemary.

Rosemary’s story was tinged with tragedy from the moment of her birth in 1918. During her labor, her mother Rose had opted for a home birth assisted by a doctor and a nurse. But when the doctor arrived late for the delivery, the nurse opted to push the nearly-born baby back into the birth canal, holding her there for two excruciating hours rather than allow the baby to be born without the doctor’s assistance. “I had such confidence in my obstetrician,”recalled Rose later. “I put my faith in God and tried to sublimate my discomfort in expectation of…happiness.”

In reality, the decision to hold the baby inside the birth canal had led to tragedy. The pressure had deprived Rosemary of oxygen and led to seizures, learning delays and symptoms of mental illness.

At the time, intellectual disabilities, which were referred to as “mental retardation,” were little understood and stigmatized by a society that viewed people with disabilities as shameful and different. Often, people with disabilities would be put in sanitariums or mental institutions long-term.

Though Rose never spoke of her daughter’s learning delays, which appear to have been mild, she apparently refused to send her to an institution. Ashamed of Rosemary’s difference, the Kennedys simply pretended everything was fine. They sent Rosemary to boarding schools and supervised her carefully when she was at home. Meanwhile, Rosemary continued her education and participated in some public events, but her parents were increasingly concerned about her erratic moods. When they learned she had been sneaking out of her convent school and apparently meeting men at bars, they began to seek medical advice.

Her father, Joe, got it from Walter Freeman, a neurologist known for popularizing the lobotomy. The procedure, in which some nerve pathways in the brain are cut or removed, was touted as a way to control the symptoms of mental illness. It’s unclear if Rosemary was ever informed or asked about the procedure, and Rose laterdenied having been asked about it, either. In 1941, when Rosemary was 23, she had two holes drilled in her brain while she was awake.

She was never the same again. “After the botched surgery,”write Tierney McAfee and Liz McNeil for TIME, “Rosemary was left with the mental capacity of a toddlerunable to walk, form a sentence or follow simple directions. She was forced to relearn the most basic of skills, but some would never be recovered.”

The lobotomy may have subdued Rosemary, but it had destroyed her life. She was transferred to a care facility by her father, and for the next 20 years, her family claim they had no idea where she was. During John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign, they claimed she was simply reclusive. Only after JFK’s election did they reveal that Rosemary was institutionalized—and they didn’t admit it was because of a lobotomy.

Rosemary’s ordeal “was the fuel that powered the engine that was Eunice Kennedy Shriver,” historian Eileen McNamaratold the PBS News Hour. “I think there was some guilt that she was complicit in some way in letting Rosemary languish far from home.” When Joe had a stroke in 1961, Eunice brought Rosemary back into the family and began to pressure her brother to include intellectual disabilities in his policy platforms.

She also became increasingly aware of the impact of intellectual disabilities on other families. In the early 1960s, a woman who was aware of Eunice’s advocacy work for people with intellectual disabilities asked her what to do about her child, who had been rejected from summer camp because he had mental retardation.

“I said, ‘You don’t have to talk about it anymore,” Eunice laterrecalled. “You come here a month from today. I’ll start my own camp. No charge to go into the camp, but you have to get your kid here, and you have to come and pick your kid up.’” She set up the camp at Timberlawn, a Kennedy property in Maryland, and called itCamp Shriver.

For four years, she invited children with intellectual and other disabilities to her house, free of charge, recruited local high school students to act as counselors, and provided lessons and recreational activities. Children who had always been excluded from group activities thrived in the accepting environment, and Eunice was encouraged by their progress. “I suppose the fact that I had seen my sister swim like a deer—in swimming races—and do very, very well just always made me think that [people with disabilities] could do everything.”

Meanwhile, Eunice went public with her sister’s struggle. “We are just coming out of the dark ages in our handling of this serious national problem,” shewrote in the Saturday Evening Post in 1962. “Twenty years ago, when my sister entered an institution, it was most unusual for anyone to discuss this problem in terms of hope. But the weary fatalism of those days is no longer justified.” Though Eunice did not mention the lobotomy in the article, it is widely considered to have been a watershed for public awareness of the largely dismissed lives of people with disabilities.

Eunice went on to expand her camp, and eventually it evolved into the Special Olympics. Today, the organization serves 5.7 million athletes with intellectual disabilities, holding sports events worldwide and working to increase the visibility and health of people with intellectual disabilities. And though Eunicedenies that Rosemary, who died in 2005, was the direct reason for her involvement with the cause, there’s no doubt that her sister’s struggles and stigma deeply impacted her and shaped her views on a better way to treat people with disabilities.

“Eunice [made] sure that Rosemary felt included,”recalled their brother, Ted. “It was really that spirit that started the Special Olympics.”

Rosemary Kennedy

Rosemary Kennedy, born Rose Marie Kennedy on September 13, 1918, was the third child and eldest daughter of Joseph and Rose Kennedy. She was slower to crawl, slower to walk and to speak than her brothers, and she experienced learning difficulties when she reached school age. Despite her apparent intellectual disabilities, Rosemary participated in most family activities. In the diary she kept as a teenager she described people she met, dances and concerts she attended, and a visit to the Roosevelt White House. When her father was appointed US Ambassador to Britain in 1938, Rosemary went to live in London and was presented at court along with her mother and sister Kathleen.

But when the family returned to the United States in 1940, “Rosemary was not making progress but seemed instead to be going backward,” as her sister Eunice later wrote. “At 22, she was becoming increasingly irritable and difficult.” The following year, after being persuaded that a lobotomy would help to calm his daughter and prevent her sometimes violent mood swings, Joseph Kennedy authorized the operation. The relatively new procedure, which at the time seemed to hold great promise, left Rosemary permanently incapacitated and unable to care for herself. On the recommendation of Archbishop Cushing, Rosemary was sent to St. Coletta’s School for Exceptional Children in Jefferson, Wisconsin, where she would live for the rest of her life.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver had a particularly close relationship with her older sister, and great empathy for Rosemary and others who faced similar challenges. In 1962, Mrs. Shriver started a summer day camp in her own back yard for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, a camp which evolved into Special Olympics, now a global competition that involves 1.4 million athletes from 150 countries.

Rosemary Kennedy died on January 7, 2005 at age 86. Eunice Shriver said in her eulogy that Rosemary had left a legacy that was long and deep. Along with inspiring Mrs. Shriver’s own work with Special Olympics, Rosemary had inspired her brother, President John F. Kennedy, to initiate sweeping legislation designed to improve the quality of life for Americans with disabilities. She had inspired her sister Jean Kennedy Smith to start Very Special Arts and her nephew, Anthony Shriver, to start Best Buddies. Hospitals, schools and other such facilities around the world have been named in honor of Rosemary Kennedy.

'Fully Alive' is Timothy Shriver's story of the Kennedy family's relationship to the Special Olympics

JFK nephew Timothy Shriver tells the inspiring story of how the Special Olympics came to be, and some of the ways in which the organization has changed the world for the better.

Rosemary Kennedy is perhaps the least well known of Joseph and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy’s brood, which included two United States Senators and a President. Although she had inherited the family’s good looks, she was deemed to be, by the common term at the time of her birth in 1918, “feebleminded.” She couldn’t keep up with her peers, much less with her Type A-plus siblings.

Such children often wound up warehoused in institutions and forgotten, sometimes sterilized, and even left to die throughout history. The Nazis exterminated more than 200,000 “retarded” individuals. But Rosemary’s family did not send her away, at least not initially. They included her. For example, in 1938 when her father was named Ambassador to the Court of St. James's, Rosemary was presented to the king and queen of Great Britain. But within a few years her life would take a terrible turn and she would become a well-kept Kennedy secret for more than two decades.

In Fully Alive: Discovering What Matters Most, Timothy Shriver, Rosemary’s nephew, makes the case that his aunt, despite her intellectual disability, was an extraordinary person, one who served as the “catalyst” for a worldwide movement through her impact on her siblings Eunice Shriver and John F. Kennedy and on generations to follow. Timothy Shriver is the Chairman of Special Olympics, which his mother Eunice founded in 1968.

Although Rosemary’s impact on the birth of Special Olympics previously had been discounted by both the author and his mother, this book makes the connection explicitly: “Despite failing to meet any of the expectations that were imposed on the rest of us, [Rosemary] belonged. She didn’t have to do anything to earn that. Only in retrospect did I realize how, at some level, I envied her deeply. Her presence changed everything.”

Shriver’s book is about people like Rosemary, and how they have come out of the shadows to live happier and useful lives with the help of loving families, government support, and private organizations. But it is not a one-way street, the author makes clear throughout. A 1981 Yale University graduate with two advanced degrees, Shriver insists that the most important lessons in life were taught to him by special Olympians like Loretta Claiborne and Donal Page: “Although it might seem counterintuitive, I believe people with intellectual disabilities are brilliant teachers of that something bigger that we are all looking for … they taught me that we are all totally vulnerable and totally valuable at the same time. They modeled lessons in love and fulfillment that I didn’t even know were possible.”

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As that excerpt suggests, the book also is about the author’s struggle to find his own place in the world and to determine what is important, what has value amid the frenetic confusion of modern life. In another time Shriver’s spiritual odyssey might have led him to the priesthood, and his prose is seasoned liberally with contemporary parables, Biblical allusions, and philosophical musings.

The author was nurtured on the progressive ideals of his parents, both devout Catholics who attended daily Mass: Sargent Shriver was a driving force behind the creation of the Peace Corps, the Jobs Corps, Head Start, and President Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty Eunice Shriver, who also was a founder of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, took it upon herself to bring Rosemary back from familial exile, out of the shadows where she had lived for years. Eunice also made sure that intellectual and physical disabilities would be addressed by her brother’s administration.

She and her son, and many others, would bring hundreds of thousands of intellectually disabled people out of the darkness where human fear and shame and despair had sentenced them. Today Special Olympics is active worldwide, in places like Afghanistan, China, and Egypt, and has challenged more than one million athletes to strive to do their best. Some have done quite well, indeed. In addition to being an inspiring speaker with a TED Talk to her credit, Loretta Claiborne became an elite runner, finishing among the top 100 women in the Boston Marathon.

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But for an even more stirring example of the power of human determination, it would be difficult to top Donal Page’s performance at the Special Olympics World Summer Games in his native Ireland. Shriver describes movingly how Page, who is extremely handicapped physically, brought 1,500 spectators to their feet, including the Irish President. He stole the show from attendees like Bono and Nelson Mandela.

It took Shriver a while to understand that it wasn’t only the athletes who were benefiting from Special Olympics. He ends the book with a clarion call to service, to storm the nearest castle. His idealistic rhetoric has a nostalgic ring to it, in this era of advancing cynicism and self-indulgence: “So wherever you are, and whatever you’re doing, there’s a castle close by that only you can attack. Don’t delay another second. Take aim, be brave, and have fun. All it takes is a willingness to enter the game and believe. Just by playing, you’ll surely win the medal that matters most.”

Eunice Shriver, Special Olympics founder and sister of JFK, dies at 88

Women in mid-20th century America were not yet welcome on the grand political stage, but Eunice Kennedy Shriver -- a daughter of uncommon privilege who defined herself as a mother above all -- didn’t much care. As the younger sister of President Kennedy and with a family foundation behind her, she became an unstoppable advocate for the mentally disabled.

In the early 1960s, Shriver pushed mental retardation onto the national agenda. Her brother Robert, who was JFK’s attorney general, once joked: “President Kennedy used to tell me, ‘Let’s give Eunice whatever she wants so I can get on with the business of government.’ ”

Shriver’s advocacy for those with special needs would never end once it took root in sports. In 1968, she founded the Special Olympics, the athletic competition for the mentally disabled.

During the first games, Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley told her: “Eunice, the world will never be the same.”

Shriver, who was also the sister of Sen. Edward M. Kennedy and the mother of California First Lady Maria Shriver, died Tuesday at Cape Cod Hospital in Hyannis, Mass., her family said. She was 88.

In a speech last fall at the Women’s Conference in Long Beach, Maria Shriver said her mother had had several strokes.

Two days before she was hospitalized in November 2007, Eunice Shriver was honored for her work with the disabled at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Boston at an event organized by her children. That fall, she also had traveled to Shanghai to attend her final Special Olympics.

“Eunice was the light of our family,” Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger said of his mother-in-law in a statement. “She meant so much, not only to us, but to our country and to the world. She was a pioneer who worked tirelessly for social and scientific advances that have changed the lives of millions of developmentally disabled people all over the world.”

President Obama called Shriver “a champion for people with intellectual disabilities” and “an extraordinary woman who, as much as anyone, taught our nation -- and our world -- that no physical or mental barrier can restrain the power of the human spirit.”

Shriver’s unflagging support for the mentally disabled, who for generations were hidden in shame and secrecy in America, has been called the Kennedy family’s most important campaign and was considered a precursor to the larger disability rights movement.

“When the full judgment of the Kennedy legacy is made -- including JFK’s Peace Corps and Alliance for Progress, Robert Kennedy’s passion for civil rights and Edward Kennedy’s efforts on healthcare, workplace reform and refugees -- the changes wrought by Eunice Shriver may well be the most consequential,” U.S. News & World Report magazine said in a 1993 cover story.

Edward Shorter, author of “The Kennedy Family and the Story of Mental Retardation” (2000), said that “no family has done more than the Kennedys to change negative attitudes about mental retardation.”

The founding of the Special Olympics went a long way toward erasing long-held stigmas that the Kennedy family knew well because Eunice had a sister who was mentally disabled. And the federal money that was unleashed resulted in research breakthroughs and a proliferation of educational programs.

President Kennedy enabled Shriver to help create both the National Institute on Child Health and Human Development and the President’s Committee on Mental Retardation. She made the issue so important to her brother that he reportedly left an emergency meeting during the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 to receive the committee’s report.

More than 70% of the presidential committee’s 112 recommendations were eventually implemented, according to the U.S. News & World Report article on Shriver and the Kennedy family’s largely overlooked accomplishment. In the mid-1960s, more than $400 million a year in federal funds was appropriated to benefit the mentally disabled, which included hospital-improvement programs. More than twice that amount was being spent each year by states, local governments and private organizations, said a 1967 report by the president’s committee.

The advancements marked a “historic emergence of mental retardation . . . from isolation and public indifference,” the report said.

“If she had been a man, she certainly would have been a candidate for president,” Shorter told The Times. “Instead, she unleashed her tremendous executive energy on behalf of this cause and helped change history.”

Under her brother’s presidency, the history of mental retardation entered a new phase, according to Shorter.

“People with MR began to experience a new visibility and a growing acceptance,” he wrote. “This was an historic accomplishment: the ability to demonstrate one’s human worth despite the presence of a great handicap.”

On a more personal level, Shriver pushed for more than a year to reveal the closely guarded family secret that she was certain would dramatically help alter public opinion about the disabled. She wanted to disclose that the president’s sister Rosemary was mentally disabled.

In 1962, Shriver told the world about Rosemary’s condition in a Saturday Evening Post article. The headline read: “Hope for Retarded Children.”

Advocates for the mentally disabled point to the article and Shriver’s candor as a turning point that helped move mental disabilities from behind a curtain of ignorance.

The article pointed out that Rosemary was raised at home -- in an era when this was scorned -- and avoided mentioning the lobotomy that her father, Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., authorized in 1941 as a means of helping the mildly retarded Rosemary but worsened her condition. She lived most of her life in a private institution in Wisconsin, where Shriver was a frequent visitor, and died at 86 in 2005.

“I had enormous affection for Rosie,” Shriver told National Public Radio in 2007. “If I [had] never met Rosemary, never known anything about handicapped children, how would I have ever found out? Because nobody accepted them anyplace.”

Influenced by Rosemary’s ability at sports and her own inclination toward athletics, Shriver was drawn to the idea of physical activity as a way to benefit the mentally disabled.

“The world was full of people saying what mentally retarded people could not do,” her husband of 56 years, former Peace Corps Director Sargent Shriver, recalled some years ago. “She just didn’t believe that there were human beings who were as useless or hopeless, or whatever the right word might be, as the mentally retarded were thought to be 40 years ago.”

In 1961, Eunice Shriver turned Timberlawn, the family farm in Maryland, into a free day camp for mentally disabled children. She would get down in the dirt with campers, play in the sandbox, pitch softballs or teach them to swim. Shriver had them riding horseback and shooting bows and arrows.

“Nobody else’s mother was doing anything like that,” Maria Shriver said in the 1994 book “The Kennedy Women,” by Laurence Leamer. “It was always my mother following her own gut, going against the grain.”

When an idea was floated to stage a summer athletic festival for the mentally disabled, Eunice Shriver suggested broadening the concept to include participants from around the country. She had the Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation -- named for her oldest sibling, who was killed in World War II -- pay for them.

The first games, which featured only swimming and track and field events, were held in Chicago in the summer of 1968, just weeks after the assassination of Robert Kennedy.

In her opening address to about 1,000 competitors from 26 states and Canada, Shriver noted that the event was neither a spectacle “nor just for fun.” She wanted to prove that, through sports, these “exceptional children” could reach their potential.

Today the Special Olympics are played on a worldwide stage, with an estimated 2.5 million people from more than 150 countries taking part in hundreds of programs.

Athletes as young as 8 attend winter and summer games that have been staged every four years since the 1970s.

At the 2007 summer games in Shanghai, more than 7,200 athletes competed in 21 events that now include such sports as gymnastics, cycling and golf.

Shriver told NPR in 2007 that she continued to work for the mentally disabled “because it’s so outrageous, still. In so many countries. They’re not accepted. . . . So we have much to do.”

Eunice Mary Kennedy -- known within the family as “Puny Eunie” -- was born July 10, 1921, at home in Brookline, Mass.

The fifth of nine children of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy had chronic health problems all her life: Addison’s disease, an adrenal disorder that also plagued her brother John stomach ulcers colitis and a tendency toward nervous exhaustion.

Yet Shriver’s fervent drive easily exhausted aides half her age and others around her.

She had “all that incredible energy,” Maria Shriver recalled in “The Kennedy Women.” “People think, ‘God, it would be such a horror if your mother had really great health. What would she have been like?’ ”

Eunice Kennedy attended Stanford University because her mother thought the mild California climate might improve her health.

After graduating in 1944 with a bachelor’s degree in sociology, she worked for the State Department reorienting American prisoners of war after World War II.

She also was a social worker at the Penitentiary for Women in Alderson, W.Va., and later worked for the Justice Department as coordinator of the National Conference on Prevention and Control of Juvenile Delinquency.

At a cocktail party in New York City in 1946, she met Robert Sargent Shriver Jr., a Navy veteran and Yale Law School graduate who worked on her father’s business staff.

They married in 1953 in front of 1,700 guests at St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City, bolstering what has been described as both an American and a Catholic aristocracy.

In 1958, her father asked Sargent and Eunice to run the foundation named for Joseph Jr. The senior Kennedy, reportedly tormented by the fate of his daughter Rosemary, was also looking for a cause to which the family name could be linked.

When JFK was elected president two years later, and Sargent Shriver was asked to run the Peace Corps, the foundation’s leadership fell squarely to Eunice.

In her hands, the cause of mental retardation “became an incandescent torch,” Shorter wrote in his book.

She couldn’t have accomplished more during JFK’s presidency if she had been given an official role, Eunice Shriver said in “The Kennedy Women” decades later.

“I was perfectly happy where I was,” she said. “And I think I just had a very wonderful relationship with my brother, and he was wonderful to this cause. I don’t say that blindly.”

Few avenues existed for the study of intellectual disabilities when the Kennedy foundation was established in 1946. One of the first centers the organization founded to diagnose and treat such disabilities is now known as St. John’s Child and Family Development Center in Santa Monica.

The foundation created a network of mental retardation research centers at medical schools at major universities, including Johns Hopkins, Harvard and Stanford.

It also established centers for the study of medical ethics at Harvard and Georgetown universities.

Eunice and Sargent Shriver’s marriage was widely considered the best in the big Kennedy clan.

Both were regular churchgoers committed to public service, and they made room for fun. When Sargent Shriver was U.S. ambassador to France from 1968 to 1970, his wife installed a trampoline on the residence lawn and often invited diplomats to bounce a bit.

As the mother of four sons and a daughter, Eunice Shriver thoroughly believed “in motherhood as the nourishment of life,” once writing that “it is the most wonderful, satisfying thing we can do.”

Son Mark was a member of the Maryland Legislature. Timothy has chaired the Special Olympics for more than a dozen years. Bobby is a Santa Monica city councilman and film producer. Anthony heads Best Buddies, which pairs college students with the mentally challenged. Maria, a former network news reporter, is also active in the Special Olympics.

Besides her children, Shriver is survived by her husband, 93, who has Alzheimer’s disease brother Edward, who was diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor in 2008 sister Jean Kennedy Smith and 19 grandchildren.

Sen. Kennedy joined other family members who gathered at Shriver’s home for a private service Tuesday evening.

Information about the funeral and memorial services will be posted at, where online tributes are being accepted.

honored for her workhonored for her workShriver received many accolades during her lifetime, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor, as well as the French Legion of Honor, the Lasker Award for public service and the Theodore Roosevelt Award of the National Collegiate Athletic Assn.

The younger generation of the Kennedy family often cited Eunice as the family member whom they looked up to most.

“She should have been president,” her nephew Bobby Kennedy said in the 1983 book “Growing Up Kennedy.” “She is the most impressive figure in the family. Most of my brothers, sisters and cousins would say they’d like to be like her.”


Joseph Patrick Kennedy was born in 1888 in Boston, Massachusetts. Kennedy was the elder son of Mary Augusta (Hickey) Kennedy and businessman and politician Patrick Joseph "P.J." Kennedy. He had a younger brother, Francis, and two younger sisters, Mary and Margaret. All four of Joe's grandparents had immigrated to Massachusetts in the 1840s to escape the Irish famine. He was born into a highly sectarian society, where Irish Catholics were excluded by the upper-class Boston Brahmins. The Boston Irish thus became active in the Democratic Party, which included P.J., an accomplished businessman, and numerous relatives. P.J. Kennedy's successful saloon business, investment ventures, and influential role in local politics enabled him to provide a comfortable lifestyle for his family. His mother encouraged Joe to attend the Boston Latin School, where he was a below-average scholar but was popular among his classmates, winning election as class president and playing on the school baseball team. [ citation needed ]

Kennedy followed in the footsteps of elder cousins by attending Harvard College. He focused on becoming a social leader, working energetically to gain admittance to the prestigious Hasty Pudding Club. While at Harvard he joined the Delta Upsilon International fraternity and played on the baseball team, but he was blackballed from the Porcellian Club. [ citation needed ] Kennedy graduated in 1912 [4] with a bachelor's degree in economics. [5]

On October 7, 1914, Kennedy married Rose Fitzgerald, [6] the eldest daughter of Boston Mayor John F. "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald and Mary Josephine "Josie" Hannon. [7]

Kennedy pursued a career in business and investing. In his mid- to late 20s, he made a large fortune as a stock market and commodity investor he reinvested in real estate and a wide range of business industries. He did not build a significant business from scratch, but his timing as both buyer and seller was usually excellent. [8]

Various criminals, such as Frank Costello, have boasted they worked with Kennedy in mysterious bootlegging operations during Prohibition. [9] Scholars dismiss the claims. The most recent and most thorough biographer David Nasaw asserts that no credible evidence has been found to link Kennedy to bootlegging activities. [10] When Fortune magazine published its first list of the richest people in the United States in 1957, it placed Kennedy in the $200–400 million group. [1] [11]

Early ventures Edit

Kennedy's first job after graduating from Harvard was a position as a state-employed bank examiner this job allowed him to learn a great deal about the banking industry. In 1913, the Columbia Trust Bank, in which his father held a significant share, was under threat of takeover. Kennedy borrowed $45,000 ($1,178,333 today) [1] from family and friends and bought back control. At the age of 25, he was rewarded by being elected the bank's president. Kennedy told the press he was "the youngest" bank president in America. [12]

Kennedy emerged as a highly successful entrepreneur who had an eye for value. For example, he was a real estate investor who turned a handsome profit from ownership of Old Colony Realty Associates, Inc., which bought distressed real estate. [13]

Although he was skeptical of American involvement in the war, Kennedy sought to participate in wartime production as an assistant general manager of Fore River, a major Bethlehem Steel shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. There, he oversaw the production of transports and warships. Through this job, he became acquainted with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Delano Roosevelt. [ citation needed ]

Wall Street and stock market investments Edit

In 1919, Kennedy joined the prominent stock brokerage firm of Hayden, Stone & Co. where he became an expert dealing in the unregulated stock market of the day, engaging in tactics that were later considered to be insider trading and market manipulation. He happened to be on the corner of Wall and Broad Streets at the moment of the Wall Street bombing on September 16, 1920, and was thrown to the ground by the force of the blast. [14] In 1923, he left Hayden and set up his own investment company. Kennedy subsequently became a multi-millionaire during the bull market of the 1920s and even wealthier as a result of taking "short" positions in 1929. [ citation needed ]

David M. Kennedy (no relation to this Kennedy) described the Wall Street of the Kennedy era as follows: [ citation needed ]

[It] was a strikingly information-starved environment. Many firms whose securities were publicly traded published no regular reports or issued reports whose data were so arbitrarily selected and capriciously audited as to be worse than useless. It was this circumstance that had conferred such awesome power on a handful of investment bankers like J. P. Morgan, because they commanded a virtual monopoly of the information necessary for making sound financial decisions. Especially in the secondary markets, where reliable information was all but impossible for the average investor to come by, opportunities abounded for insider manipulation and wildcat speculation.

1929 Wall Street Crash Edit

Kennedy formed alliances with several other Irish-Catholic investors, including Charles E. Mitchell, Michael J. Meehan, and Bernard Smith. He helped establish a "stock pool" to control trading in the stock of glassmaker Libbey-Owens-Ford. The arrangement drove up the value of the pool operators' holdings in the stock by using insider information and the public's lack of knowledge. Pool operators would bribe journalists to present information in the most advantageous manner. Pool operators tried to corner a stock and drive the price up, or drive the price down with a "bear raid". Kennedy got into a bidding war for control of Yellow Cab Company. [15]

Kennedy later claimed he understood that the rampant stock speculation of the late 1920s would lead to a market crash. Supposedly, he said that he knew it was time to get out of the market when he received stock tips from a shoe-shine boy. [16] Kennedy survived the crash "because he possessed a passion for facts, a complete lack of sentiment and a marvelous sense of timing". [17]

During the Great Depression, Kennedy vastly increased his fortune by investing most of his money in real estate. In 1929, Kennedy's fortune was estimated to be $4 million (equivalent to $60.3 million today). [1] By 1935, his wealth had increased to $180 million (equivalent to $3.4 billion today). [1]

Investments in entertainment, shipping, and real estate Edit

Kennedy made huge profits from reorganizing and refinancing several Hollywood film studios. Film production in the U.S. was much more decentralized than it is today, with many different movie studios producing film product. [ citation needed ] One small studio was Film Booking Offices of America (or FBO), which specialized in Westerns produced cheaply. Its owner was in financial trouble, and asked Kennedy to help find a new owner. Kennedy formed his own group of investors and bought it for $1.5 million. [ citation needed ]

In March 1926, Kennedy moved to Hollywood to focus on running film studios. At that time, film studios were permitted to own exhibition companies, which were necessary to get their films on local screens. With that in mind, in a hostile buyout, he acquired the Keith-Albee-Orpheum Theaters Corporation (KAO), which had more than 700 vaudeville theaters across the United States that had begun showing movies. He later purchased another production studio called Pathe Exchange, and merged those two entities with Cecil B. DeMille's Producers Distributing Corporation in March 1927. [ citation needed ]

In August 1928, he unsuccessfully tried to run First National Pictures. [19] In October 1928, he formally merged his film companies FBO and KAO to form Radio-Keith-Orpheum (RKO) and made a large amount of money in the process. Then, keen to buy the Pantages Theatre chain, which had 63 profitable theaters, Kennedy made an offer of $8 million ($121 million today). [1] It was declined. He then stopped distributing his movies to Pantages. Still, Alexander Pantages declined to sell. However, when Pantages was later charged and tried for rape, his reputation took a battering, and he accepted Kennedy's revised offer of $3.5 million ($52.8 million today). [1] Pantages, who claimed that Kennedy had "set him up", was later found not guilty at a second trial. The girl who had accused Pantages of rape, Eunice Pringle, confessed on her deathbed that Kennedy was the mastermind of the plot to frame Pantages. [20]

Many estimate that Kennedy made over $5 million ($75.4 million today) [1] from his investments in Hollywood. During his three-year affair with film star Gloria Swanson, [22] he arranged the financing for her films The Love of Sunya (1927) and the ill-fated Queen Kelly (1928). The duo also used Hollywood's famous "body sculptor", masseuse Sylvia of Hollywood. [22] Their relationship ended when Swanson discovered that an expensive gift from Kennedy had been charged to her account. [23]

A recurring rumor alleges that he made money in bootlegging illegal liquor during Prohibition. Historians have not found credible evidence of this [ citation needed ] . On the contrary, there is abundant evidence that as the end of prohibition loomed (in 1933), Kennedy invested heavily in Scottish distilleries. [ citation needed ] As soon as it became legal he imported large shipments of high-priced Scotch and made a large profit. Various contradictory "bootlegging" stories circulated but historians have not accepted them. At the start of the Franklin Roosevelt administration in March 1933, Kennedy and future Congressman James Roosevelt II founded Somerset Importers, an entity that acted as the exclusive American agent for Haig & Haig Scotch, Gordon's Dry Gin and Dewar's Scotch. Kennedy kept his Somerset company for years. [24] Kennedy himself drank little alcohol. He so disapproved of what he considered a stereotypical Irish vice that he offered his sons $1,000 not to drink until they turned 21. [25]

Kennedy invested his profits from alcohol into residential and commercial real estate in New York, the Le Pavillon restaurant, and the Hialeah Park Race Track in Hialeah, Florida. In addition, Kennedy purchased spirits-importation rights from Schenley Industries, a firm in Canada. [2] His most important purchase was the largest privately owned building in the country, Chicago's Merchandise Mart, [26] which gave his family a grounding in that city and an alliance with the city's Irish-American political leadership. [ citation needed ]

SEC Chairman (1934–1935) Edit

In 1932, Kennedy supported Franklin D. Roosevelt in his bid for the Presidency. This was his first major involvement in a national political campaign, and he donated, loaned, and raised a substantial amount of money for the campaign. [ citation needed ]

In 1934, Congress established the independent Securities and Exchange Commission to end irresponsible market manipulations and dissemination of false information about securities. [27]

In the 21st century, the SEC remains one of the most powerful government agencies. Its predecessor had been ineffective in 1933–34 as part of another agency and the financial market was dying. Roosevelt named Kennedy to head the SEC cleanup of Wall Street. The New Deal attracted many of the nation's most talented young lawyers. Roosevelt's brain trust drew up a list of recommended candidates for the SEC chairmanship. Kennedy headed the list, which stated he was "the best bet for Chairman because of executive ability, knowledge of habits and customs of business to be regulated and ability to moderate different points of view on Commission." [28]

Kennedy sought out the best lawyers available giving him a hard-driving team with a mission for reform. They included William O. Douglas and Abe Fortas, both of whom were later named to the Supreme Court. [29] The SEC had four missions. First was to restore investor confidence in the securities market, which had collapsed on account of its questionability, and the external threats supposedly posed by anti-business elements in the Roosevelt administration. Second, the SEC had to get rid of penny-ante swindles based on false information, fraudulent devices, and get-rich-quick schemes. Thirdly, and much more important than the frauds, the SEC had to end the million-dollar maneuvers in major corporations, whereby insiders with access to high-quality information about the company knew when to buy or sell their own securities. A crackdown on insider trading was essential. Finally, the SEC had to set up a complex system of registration for all securities sold in America, with a clear set of rules, deadlines and guidelines that all companies had to follow. The main challenge faced by the young lawyers was drafting precise rules. The SEC succeeded in its four missions, as Kennedy reassured the American business community that they would no longer be deceived and taken advantage of by Wall Street. He trumpeted for ordinary investors to return to the market and enable the economy to grow again. [30] Kennedy's reforming work as SEC Chairman was widely praised on all sides, as investors realized the SEC was protecting their interests. He resigned from the SEC in 1935. [31]

Chairman of U.S. Maritime Commission Edit

In 1937, Kennedy became the first Chairman of the U.S. Maritime Commission, [32] which built on his wartime experience in running a major shipyard.

Relationship with Father Charles Coughlin Edit

Father Charles Coughlin, an Irish-Canadian priest near Detroit, became the most prominent Roman Catholic spokesman on political and financial issues in the 1930s, with a radio audience that reached millions every week. Having been a strong supporter of Roosevelt since 1932, in 1934 Coughlin broke with the president, who became a bitter opponent of Coughlin's weekly anti-communist, anti-Semitic, far-right, anti–Federal Reserve and isolationist radio talks. Roosevelt sent Kennedy and other prominent Irish Catholics to try to tone down Coughlin. [33]

Coughlin swung his support to Huey Long in 1935 and then to William Lemke's Union Party in 1936. Kennedy strongly supported the New Deal (Father Coughlin believed that the New Deal did not go far enough – indeed that Franklin Roosevelt was a tool of the rich) and reportedly believed as early as 1933 that Coughlin was "becoming a very dangerous proposition" as an opponent of Roosevelt and "an out and out demagogue". In 1936, Kennedy worked with Roosevelt, Bishop Francis Spellman and Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII) to shut Coughlin down. [34] When Coughlin returned to the air in 1940, Kennedy continued to battle against his influence among Irish Americans. [35]

Despite his public disputes with Coughlin, it has also been acknowledged that Kennedy would also accompany Coughlin whenever the priest visited Roosevelt at Hyde Park. [36] A historian with History News Network also stated that Coughlin was in fact a friend of Kennedy as well. [37] In a Boston Post article of August 16, 1936, Coughlin referred to Kennedy as the "shining star among the dim 'knights' in the [Roosevelt] Administration." [38]

Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1938–1940) Edit

In 1938, Roosevelt appointed Kennedy as the United States Ambassador to the Court of St. James's (UK). Kennedy hoped to succeed Roosevelt in the White House in 1940. [39]

Kennedy hugely enjoyed his leadership position in London high society, which stood in stark contrast to his relative outsider status in Boston. On May 6, 1944, his daughter Kathleen married William "Billy" Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington, the elder son of the Duke of Devonshire. The union was disapproved by Rose Kennedy due to Hartington being an Anglican. Unable to reconcile their religious backgrounds, Hartington and Kathleen were married in a civil ceremony. Hartington, a major in the Coldstream Guards, was killed in action in 1944.

Appeasement Edit

Kennedy rejected the belief of Winston Churchill that any compromise with Nazi Germany was impossible. Instead, he supported Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement. Throughout 1938, while the Nazi persecution of the Jews in Germany intensified, Kennedy attempted to arrange a meeting with Adolf Hitler. [40] Shortly before the Nazi bombing of British cities began in September 1940, Kennedy once again sought a personal meeting with Hitler without the approval of the U. S. Department of State, in order to "bring about a better understanding between the United States and Germany". [41]

Anti-British sentiment Edit

Kennedy also argued strongly against providing military and economic aid to the United Kingdom. "Democracy is finished in England. It may be here", he stated in the Boston Sunday Globe of November 10, 1940. With German troops having overrun Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France, and with daily bombings of Great Britain, Kennedy unambiguously and repeatedly stated that the war was not about saving democracy from National Socialism (Nazism) or from Fascism. In an interview with two newspaper journalists, Louis M. Lyons of The Boston Globe, and Ralph Coghlan of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Kennedy said:

It's all a question of what we do with the next six months. The whole reason for aiding England is to give us time . As long as she is in there, we have time to prepare. It isn't that [Britain is] fighting for democracy. That's the bunk. She's fighting for self-preservation, just as we will if it comes to us. . I know more about the European situation than anybody else, and it's up to me to see that the country gets it. [3]

Isolationist Edit

His views were becoming inconsistent and increasingly isolationist. British MP Josiah Wedgwood IV, who had himself opposed the British government's earlier appeasement policy, said of Kennedy:

We have a rich man, untrained in diplomacy, unlearned in history and politics, who is a great publicity seeker and who apparently is ambitious to be the first Catholic president of the U.S. [42]

Defeatist Edit

Kennedy told a British reporter in late 1939 that he was confident that Roosevelt would "fall" in 1940 (i.e. in that year's presidential election). [37]

In British government circles during the Blitz, Kennedy was widely disparaged as a defeatist. On September 19, 1939, he sent three of his nine children back to the United States. They were, Robert aged 13, Jeanne aged 10, and Edward aged 7. Kennedy retreated to the countryside during the bombings of London by German aircraft, at a time when the British Royal Family, Prime Minister, government ministers, and other ambassadors chose to stay in London.

I thought my daffodils were yellow until I met Joe Kennedy.

Recalled Edit

When the White House read his quotes it became clear that Kennedy was completely out of step with Roosevelt's policies. Kennedy was recalled from his diplomatic duties and returned to the United States. Roosevelt urgently needed his support to hold the Catholic vote and invited him to spend the night at the White House. Kennedy agreed to make a nationwide radio speech to advocate Roosevelt's reelection. Roosevelt was pleased with the speech because, Nasaw says, it successfully "rallied reluctant Irish Catholic voters to his side, buttressed his claims that he was not going to take the nation into war, and emphasized that he alone had the experience to lead the nation in these difficult times." After Roosevelt was reelected, Kennedy submitted his resignation as ambassador. [44]

Reduced influence Edit

Throughout the rest of the war, relations between Kennedy and the Roosevelt Administration remained tense, especially when Joe Jr. vocally opposed President Roosevelt's unprecedented nomination for a third term, which began in 1941. Kennedy may have wanted to run for president himself in 1940 or later. Having effectively removed himself from the national stage, Joe Sr. sat out World War II on the sidelines. Kennedy stayed active in the smaller venues of rallying Irish-American and Roman Catholic Democrats to vote for Roosevelt's re-election for a fourth term in 1944. Former Ambassador Kennedy claimed to be eager to help the war effort, but as a result of his previous gaffes, he was neither trusted nor invited to do so. [45]

His philanthropy and close friendship with Francis Spellman, Archbishop of New York (later Cardinal), made Kennedy invested as a knight of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, an honor that he shared with just a few dozen Americans. [ citation needed ]

According to Harvey Klemmer, who served as one of Kennedy's embassy aides, Kennedy habitually referred to Jews as "kikes or sheenies". Kennedy allegedly told Klemmer that "[some] individual Jews are all right, Harvey, but as a race they stink. They spoil everything they touch." [41] When Klemmer returned from a trip to Germany and reported the pattern of vandalism and assaults on Jews by Nazis, Kennedy responded, "Well, they brought it on themselves." [46]

On June 13, 1938, Kennedy met in London with Herbert von Dirksen, the German ambassador to the United Kingdom, who claimed upon his return to Berlin that Kennedy had told him that "it was not so much the fact that we want to get rid of the Jews that was so harmful to us, but rather the loud clamor with which we accompanied this purpose. [Kennedy] himself fully understood our Jewish policy." [47] Kennedy's main concern with such violent acts against German Jews as Kristallnacht was that they generated bad publicity in the West for the Nazi regime, a concern that he communicated in a letter to Charles Lindbergh. [48]

Kennedy had a close friendship with Viscountess Astor, and their correspondence is replete with anti-Semitic statements. [49] According to Edward Renehan:

As fiercely anti-Communist as they were anti-Semitic, Kennedy and Astor looked upon Adolf Hitler as a welcome solution to both of these "world problems" (Nancy's phrase). . . Kennedy replied that he expected the "Jew media" in the United States to become a problem, that "Jewish pundits in New York and Los Angeles" were already making noises contrived to "set a match to the fuse of the world". [50]

By August 1940, Kennedy worried that a third term for President Roosevelt would mean war. Laurence Leamer in The Kennedy Men: 1901–1963 reports: "Joe believed that Roosevelt, Churchill, the Jews, and their allies would manipulate America into approaching Armageddon." [51] Nevertheless, Kennedy supported Roosevelt's third term in return for Roosevelt's promise to support Joseph Kennedy Jr. in a run for Governor of Massachusetts in 1942. [52] However, even during the darkest months of World War II, Kennedy remained "more wary of" prominent American Jews, such as Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter, than he was of Hitler. [53]

Kennedy told the reporter Joe Dinneen:

It is true that I have a low opinion of some Jews in public office and in private life. That does not mean that I. . believe they should be wiped off the face of the Earth. . Jews who take an unfair advantage of the fact that theirs is a persecuted race do not help much. . Publicizing unjust attacks upon the Jews may help to cure the injustice, but continually publicizing the whole problem only serves to keep it alive in the public mind.

Alliances Edit

Kennedy used his wealth and connections to build a national network of supporters that became the base for his sons' political careers. He especially concentrated on the Irish-American community in large cities, particularly Boston, New York, Chicago, Pittsburgh and several New Jersey cities. [54] Kennedy also used Arthur Krock of The New York Times, America's most influential political columnist, for decades as a paid speechwriter and political advisor. [55]

A political conservative (John F. Kennedy once described his father as being to "the right of Herbert Hoover"), [56] Kennedy supported Richard Nixon, who had entered Congress with John in 1947. In 1960, Joseph Kennedy approached Nixon, praised his anti-Communism, and said "Dick, if my boy can't make it, I'm for you" for the presidential election that year. [57]

Alliance with Senator Joseph McCarthy Edit

Kennedy's close ties with Republican (GOP) Senator Joseph McCarthy strengthened his family's position among Irish Catholics, but weakened it among liberals who strongly opposed McCarthy. Even before McCarthy became famous in 1950, Kennedy had forged close ties with the Republican Senator. Kennedy often brought him to his family compound at Hyannis Port as a weekend house guest in the late 1940s. McCarthy at one point dated Patricia Kennedy. [58]

When McCarthy became a dominant voice of anti-Communism starting in 1950, Kennedy contributed thousands of dollars to McCarthy, and became one of his major supporters. In the Senate race of 1952, Kennedy apparently worked a deal so that McCarthy, a Republican, would not make campaign speeches for the GOP ticket in Massachusetts. In return, Congressman John F. Kennedy, running for the Senate seat, would not give any anti-McCarthy speeches that his liberal supporters wanted to hear. [58]

At Kennedy's urging in 1953, McCarthy hired Robert F. Kennedy (aged 27) as a senior staff member of the Senate's investigations subcommittee, which McCarthy chaired. In 1954, when the Senate was threatening to condemn McCarthy, Senator John Kennedy faced a dilemma. "How could I demand that Joe McCarthy be censured for things he did when my own brother was on his staff?" asked JFK. [58]

By 1954, Robert F. Kennedy and McCarthy's chief aide Roy Cohn had fallen out with each other, and Robert no longer worked for McCarthy. John Kennedy had a speech drafted calling for the censure of McCarthy, but never delivered it. When the Senate voted to censure McCarthy on December 2, 1954, Senator Kennedy was in a hospital and never indicated how he would cast his vote. Joe Kennedy strongly supported McCarthy to the end. [58]

Involvement in son's political careers Edit

Kennedy's connections and influence were turned into political capital for the political campaigns of sons John, Robert and Ted.

Kennedy had been consigned to the political shadows after his remarks during World War II ("Democracy is finished"), and he remained an intensely controversial figure among U.S. citizens because of his suspect business credentials, his Roman Catholicism, his opposition to Roosevelt's foreign policy, and his support for Joseph McCarthy. Although his own ambitions to achieve the White House were thwarted, Kennedy held out great hope for his eldest son, Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., to seek the presidency. However, Joe Jr., who had become a U.S. Navy bomber pilot, was killed over the English Channel in August 1944 while undertaking Operation Anvil, a high-risk, new way to use heavy bombers to strike German weapon sites in France. After grieving over his dead son, Joe Sr. turned his attention to his second son, John, for a run for the presidency. [59]

Because of his own unpopularity, Kennedy's presence in John's 1960 presidential campaign had to be downplayed. However, Kennedy still drove the campaign behind the scenes. He played a central role in planning strategy, fundraising, and coalition and alliance building. Kennedy almost oversaw the entire operation, supervising spending, helping to select advertising agencies, and phoning local and state party leaders, newsmen, and business leaders. [ citation needed ]

When John F. Kennedy was asked about the level of involvement and influence that his father had held in his razor-thin presidential victory over Richard Nixon, he would joke that on the eve of the election his father had asked him the exact number of votes he would need to win: There was no way he was paying "for a landslide". Kennedy was one of four fathers (the other three being George Tryon Harding, Nathaniel Fillmore, and George Herbert Walker Bush) to live through the entire presidency of a son. [60]

Historian Richard J. Whalen describes Kennedy's influence on John F. Kennedy's policy decisions in his biography of Kennedy. Kennedy was influential in creating the Kennedy Cabinet (which included Robert Kennedy as Attorney General, although he had never argued or tried a case). [61]

In 1961, Kennedy suffered a stroke that placed limitations on his influence on his sons' political careers. [ citation needed ]

Joseph and Rose Kennedy had nine children (see table below). [62] Three of the Kennedys' sons attained distinguished political positions: John F. Kennedy (1917–1963) served as a U.S. senator from Massachusetts and as 35th president of the United States (1961-1963), Robert F. Kennedy (1925–1968) served as Attorney General (1961–64), and as a U.S. senator from New York (1965-1968), and Edward M. "Ted" Kennedy (1932–2009) served as a U.S. senator from Massachusetts (1962-2009). His eldest son Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. (1915–1944) was groomed to be President but died on active duty in World War II on a dangerous experimental flying mission over the English Channel. One of the Kennedys' daughters, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, founded the Special Olympics for disabled people, [63] while another, Jean Kennedy Smith, served as U.S. Ambassador to Ireland. [64]

As Kennedy's business success expanded, he and his family kept homes around Boston and New York City the Cape Cod peninsula as well as Palm Beach. [59]

Kennedy engaged in numerous extramarital relationships, [65] including with actresses Gloria Swanson [6] [66] and Marlene Dietrich [67] and with his secretary, Janet DesRosiers Fontaine. [68] His relationship with Swanson, whose personal and business affairs he managed, was also an open secret in Hollywood. [69] [70]

Name Birth Death Marriage and children
Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy Jr. July 25, 1915 August 12, 1944 Never married and had no children, but was once engaged to Athalia Ponsell
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy May 29, 1917 November 22, 1963 Married in 1953, to Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, had four children, assassinated November 22, 1963,
Rose Marie "Rosemary" Kennedy September 13, 1918 January 7, 2005 Never married and had no children
Kathleen Agnes "Kick" Kennedy February 20, 1920 May 13, 1948 Married in 1944, to William Cavendish, never had children, died in plane crash, 1948.
Eunice Mary Kennedy July 10, 1921 August 11, 2009 Married in 1953, to Sargent Shriver, had five children
Patricia Helen "Pat" Kennedy May 6, 1924 September 17, 2006 Married in 1954, to English actor Peter Lawford, had four children divorced in 1966
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy November 20, 1925 June 6, 1968 Married in 1950, to Ethel Skakel, had eleven children, assassinated June 1968,
Jean Ann Kennedy February 20, 1928 June 17, 2020 Married in 1956, to Stephen Smith, had two sons and adopted two daughters
Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy February 22, 1932 August 25, 2009 Married in 1958, to Joan Bennett, had three children divorced in 1982. Remarried in 1992 to Victoria Reggie had no children

Lobotomy of Rosemary Kennedy Edit

Kennedy requested that surgeons perform a lobotomy on his eldest daughter Rosemary in 1941. Various reasons for the operation have been given, but it left her permanently incapacitated. [71] [72] [73] He did not inform his wife of this decision until after the procedure was completed. [74] Rosemary's name "was never mentioned in the house", according to Janet DesRosiers Fontaine, Kennedy's secretary and mistress. [75]

The lobotomy took place in November 1941. [76] [77] James W. Watts, who carried out the procedure with Walter Freeman (both of George Washington University School of Medicine), described the procedure to author Ronald Kessler as follows:

We went through the top of the head, I think Rosemary was awake. She had a mild tranquilizer. I made a surgical incision in the brain through the skull. It was near the front. It was on both sides. We just made a small incision, no more than an inch." The instrument Dr. Watts used looked like a butter knife. He swung it up and down to cut brain tissue. "We put an instrument inside", he said. As Dr. Watts cut, Dr. Freeman asked Rosemary some questions. For example, he asked her to recite the Lord's Prayer or sing "God Bless America" or count backward. "We made an estimate on how far to cut based on how she responded." When Rosemary began to become incoherent, they stopped. [78]

Dr. Watts told Kessler that in his opinion, Rosemary had suffered not from mental retardation but rather from a form of depression. A review of all of the papers written by the two doctors confirmed Dr. Watts' declaration. All of the patients the two doctors lobotomized were diagnosed as having some form of mental disorder.[26] Dr. Bertram S. Brown, director of the National Institute of Mental Health who was previously an aide to President Kennedy, told Kessler that Joe Kennedy referred to his daughter Rosemary as mentally retarded rather than mentally ill in order to protect John's reputation for a presidential run, and that the family's "lack of support for mental illness is part of a lifelong family denial of what was really so". [71] [79] [80] [81]

It quickly became apparent that the procedure had not been successful. Kennedy's mental capacity diminished to that of a two-year-old child. She could not walk or speak intelligibly and was incontinent. [82]

Following the lobotomy, Rosemary was immediately institutionalized. [83] In 1949, she was relocated to Jefferson, Wisconsin, where she lived for the rest of her life on the grounds of the St. Coletta School for Exceptional Children (formerly known as "St. Coletta Institute for Backward Youth"). [84] Kennedy did not visit his daughter at the institution. [85] In Rosemary: The Hidden Kennedy Daughter, author Kate Clifford Larson stated that Rosemary's lobotomy was hidden from the family for twenty years. [86] In 1961, after Kennedy suffered a stroke that left him unable to speak, his children were made aware of Rosemary's location. [86] The lobotomy did not become public knowledge until 1987. [87] Rosemary Kennedy died from natural causes [88] on January 7, 2005, at the age of 86. [74]

Illness and death Edit

On December 19, 1961, at the age of 73, Kennedy suffered a stroke. He survived but was left paralyzed on his right side. Thereafter, he suffered from aphasia, which severely affected his ability to speak. He remained mentally alert, regained certain functions with therapy, and began walking with a cane. His speech also showed some improvement. [89] Kennedy began to experience excessive muscular weakness, which eventually required him to use a wheelchair. In 1964, Kennedy was taken to The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential in Philadelphia, a medical and rehabilitative center for those who have experienced brain injury. [89]

Kennedy's son Robert was assassinated on June 5, 1968. [90] In the aftermath of his son's death, Kennedy made his last public appearance when he, his wife, and son Ted made a filmed message to the country. [91] He died at home in Hyannis Port the following year on November 18, 1969. [92] He had outlived four of his children. [93] He was buried at Holyhood Cemetery in Brookline, Massachusetts. Kennedy's widow Rose was buried next to him following her death in 1995, as was their daughter Rosemary in 2005. [94]

Kennedy plays a significant role as a character in Winston's War, Michael Dobbs' fictionalized account of the rise of Winston Churchill. In Richard Condon's thriller Winter Kills, Pa Keegan is a fictionalized version of Kennedy, and is portrayed by John Huston in the film version of that novel.

In the alternate history novel Fatherland by Robert Harris, set in 1964, the senior Kennedy—not his son John F. Kennedy—is president of the United States and about to arrive in Berlin to conclude a treaty with Adolf Hitler.

Ted Kennedy: The Last Of A Family Power Dynasty

President Kennedy (right) with his brothers Attorney General Robert Kennedy (far left) and Sen. Edward Kennedy at the White House in 1963. Cecil Stoughton/White House/John F. Kennedy Presidential Library hide caption

President Kennedy (right) with his brothers Attorney General Robert Kennedy (far left) and Sen. Edward Kennedy at the White House in 1963.

Cecil Stoughton/White House/John F. Kennedy Presidential Library

Sen. Edward Kennedy, who died Tuesday night of complications related to a cancerous brain tumor, was the last of his generation of Kennedy brothers.

And with his passing, the Kennedy family power dynasty is all but over.

Kennedy's son Patrick remains a member of Congress, and Bobby Kennedy Jr. remains an outspoken advocate of causes. But others in Kennedy Jr.'s generation have shunned politics, and those who did hold office have lost it, retired or died.

The Baby And Patriarch

As the baby of the family, Kennedy lived to be its patriarch. Like his brothers before him, Kennedy took on new roles as necessity required.

Kennedy's father, Joseph, headed the large and wealthy Boston family of Irish Catholics — and Democrats — and dreamed of founding a political dynasty starting with his oldest son and namesake, Joe Jr. But Joe Jr. died in World War II. The next oldest son, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, stepped up to a political career and was elected the first Catholic president.

After President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, the next son, Robert — known as Bobby — ran for the Senate from New York. Then, in 1968, Bobby ran for the White House. During that campaign, he, too, was murdered.

Basically anointed by his brother JFK, Edward Kennedy — often known as Ted or Teddy — successfully ran for the Senate in 1962. But despite an attempt to follow JFK to the White House, Kennedy remained in the Senate until his death.

Timeline: A Life Of Service

As the third-longest serving senator in history, Kennedy will be remembered as one of the most dedicated and successful legislators the Senate has produced.

Taking JFK's Children Under His Wing

One of the many roles that history handed to Sen. Kennedy was watching over his brother John F. Kennedy's children and fostering their versions of the family ambitions.

In a speech at the 1988 Democratic convention, the late John F. Kennedy Jr. gave homage to his uncle. Sen. Kennedy brokered opportunities for younger Kennedys to appear before the political world — and one of the best was the chance to introduce Uncle Teddy at a nominating convention, symbolically claiming a share of the Kennedy tradition.

"I am not a political leader but I can speak for those of my age who've been inspired by Teddy to give their energy and their ideas to their community and not just to themselves," John F. Kennedy Jr. said at the time.

Until his death in 1999, he, too, was a fixture in Americans' lives and imaginations — a tiny boy crawling under his dad's desk in the Oval Office, and, of course, on his third birthday in November 1963, stepping forward to salute his father's casket at the president's funeral. John F. Kennedy Jr. and his sister, Caroline, were easily the best known of the next generation of Kennedys — and the wealthiest. This country watched them grow up — and collectively grieved the loss of John F. Kennedy Jr.

Caroline took a turn at the Democratic convention last summer — introducing a tribute to her Uncle Teddy, the man who stood in for her father at her wedding.

Daughter of the late President John F. Kennedy and Jackie Kennedy, Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg addressed the Democratic National Convention in August 2008. Paul J. Richards/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

Daughter of the late President John F. Kennedy and Jackie Kennedy, Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg addressed the Democratic National Convention in August 2008.

Paul J. Richards/AFP/Getty Images

"In our family, he has never missed a graduation, a first communion, or the chance to walk one of his nieces down the aisle," Caroline said. "He has a special relationship with each of us, and his 60 great nieces and nephews all know that the best cookies and the best laughs are always found at Uncle Teddy's."

Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg famously campaigned for Barack Obama with Ted Kennedy, calling Obama the candidate who inspired her as so many people have said her father inspired them.

And, for a time, it seemed possible that another Kennedy might step into the role many Americans imagined for her brother — and begin her own political career. She expressed strong interest in being appointed to Sen. Hillary Clinton's seat in New York but then withdrew her name after stories appeared saying the governor was reluctant to appoint her.

Although privacy has never been possible for President Kennedy's family, both Caroline and her mother sometimes sought it. Sen. Kennedy referred to that in his eulogy for his sister-in-law Jackie --- a recurring role for him in the family.

"I often think of what she said about Jack the December after he died: They made him a legend, when he would have preferred to be a man," Sen. Kennedy said at Jackie's funeral. "Jackie would have preferred to be just herself, but the world insisted that she be a legend, too."

Sen. Edward Kennedy (right) stands with his son, Rep. Patrick Kennedy (D-RI), at President Obama's inauguration in January. Sen. Patrick Leahy/AP hide caption

Sen. Edward Kennedy (right) stands with his son, Rep. Patrick Kennedy (D-RI), at President Obama's inauguration in January.

Remaining Kennedys With Political Careers, Public Service

Of the dozens of the Kennedy brothers' descendants, several have begun political careers. Sen. Kennedy's son Patrick represents Rhode Island in the House of Representatives but has had repeated problems with addiction. Robert Kennedy's son Joe, who was in the House for six terms, did not run for re-election after a secret annulment of his first marriage became public. His sister Kathleen was lieutenant governor of Maryland and ran for governor but lost.

Many children of the nine Kennedy siblings have carried on a family tradition of public service. On a smaller scale, several are environmental activists, while others work with poor people and people with disabilities. Among the most successful are the children of the late Eunice Kennedy — one of the Kennedy sisters — and her husband Sargent Shriver.

Eunice Kennedy is best known for creating the Special Olympics, while her husband was best known for inspiring the creation of the Peace Corps and serving as George McGovern's running mate in 1972. Their daughter Maria is the first lady of California. One of their four sons runs the Special Olympics, and another, Mark Shriver, served in the Maryland Legislature and now runs the stateside programs of the charity Save the Children. He said his parents set a persuasive example.

"They never said, 'You have to go into politics or elective office, you never have to be a politician with a small p.' There was this strong sense that if you're going to do something, do it very, very well," Mark Shriver says. "My father never missed a day of work, and I don't think my mother did, either. They went to the office every day. They worked very, very hard. I think that did permeate our existence it permeated our upbringing. I think it's great, and I think, at least in my case, it definitely gets you fired up in the morning. If you really think you're going to help kids do better, that's exciting, that's fun."

It seems unlikely that these younger Kennedys will rise to the level of Sen. Kennedy and his brothers. But then Sen. Kennedy himself took some time to develop into the national leader he was on the day he died — outliving the disgrace, if not the tragedy of Chappaquiddick and eventually outgrowing even his privileged beginnings.

Emma Stone May Forever Change the Way We See the Kennedy Family

Left, from Hulton Archive, right, by Pascal Le Segretain, both from Getty Images.

For all the stories that have been told about the storied Kennedys over the decades, there’s one member of the Kennedy clan who is poorly understood and was deliberately kept out of the spotlight her entire life: Rose, sister to John, Bobby, and Ted. Now Rose, called Rosemary her entire life, has the chance for her unusual, sad life story to be told—and Emma Stone will be bringing her to life.

Stone will star in Letters from Rosemary, based on a script featured by the prestigious Black List, which tells the story of Joseph and Rose Kennedy’s eldest daughter, whose behavioral issues and apparent intellectual disabilities made her a family secret from a young age. At 23 she underwent a pre-fontal lobotomy, intended to curb her mood swings, which left her with a toddler’s mental capacity and unable to live independently for the rest of her life.

Rosemary is often considered as the inspiration for her sister, Eunice Shriver, to found the Special Olympics, though Shriver has insisted her inspirations were much broader. Still, Rosemary’s story has never been told on film, much less from her point of view, which appears to be the goal based on the title alone for Letters from Rosemary. Stone has a major challenge ahead of her, not just in playing a woman with mental disabilities, but whose exact disabilities have been so poorly understood—was Rosemary just a rebellious daughter uninterested in studies surrounded by ambitious siblings, or developmentally disabled in a way we would recognize today? The Kennedys’ prodigious efforts to keep Rosemary a secret make it hard to know—and give Letters from Rosemary a chance to create a definitive portrait.

Less than a year after receiving major blowback for playing a native Hawaiian woman in Aloha, Stone is now tackling what’s emerged as another third rail in casting: an able-bodied actor playing a developmentally disabled character. It’s been common for Hollywood’s entire history, from Lon Chaney Jr. in Of Mice and Men to Leonardo DiCaprio in What’s Eating Gilbert Grape, but as more communities push for representation on-screen, it is being lumped in with blackface as a kind of movie-industry cheat that’s no longer acceptable. Though she was a real person, Rosemary Kennedy was private enough, and her disabilities before her lobotomy so poorly understood, that Stone and the filmmakers have plenty of room to create a fully realized character far from any stereotype. But with intellectually and developmentally disabled actors finding so little room on-screen, the pressure on Stone and the filmmakers will be immense. Not that we haven’t seen Stone handle all manner of pressure—including the controversy around Aloha with immense grace in the past.

The Untold Story of JFK's Sister, Rosemary Kennedy, and Her Disastrous Lobotomy

More than seven decades ago, JFK's troubled sister Rosemary was left disabled by a disastrous lobotomy ordered by her father. As Thursday marks the 100th anniversary of her birth, here's a look at the heartbreaking details of a dynasty's darkest secret

More than seven decades ago, JFK’s troubled sister Rosemary was left disabled by a disastrous lobotomy ordered by her father. As Thursday marks the 100th anniversary of her birth, here’s a look at the heartbreaking details of a dynasty’s darkest secret.

�rling Daddy,” 22-year-old Rosemary Kennedy wrote in a 1940 letter to her father Joseph P. Kennedy, then serving as U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain. “I am so fond of you. And I love you so very much.”

Just over a year later, that same young woman – affectionate, dutiful and always eager to please her father – was unable to form a sentence. In what would become a decades-long secret and a source of deep shame for the most famous dynasty in American history, Joe and Rose Kennedy’s intellectually disabled eldest daughter lost everything at age 23, when her father scheduled a catastrophic lobotomy that left her with the mental capacity of a toddler.

After the secret surgery, it would be another two decades – after Joe became incapacitated by a severe stroke in 1961 – before any of Rosemary’s eight siblings would learn the truth about their sister’s disappearance: she was living at a Catholic facilty for the mentally disabled in Jefferson, Wisconsin, hidden from public view.

Now, for the first time, two new books offer a devastating portrait of the lovely, troubled woman whose life was cruelly derailed by her father.

In Rosemary: The Hidden Kennedy Daughter, excerpted in this week’s PEOPLE, author Kate Larson depicts a vivacious daughter with a “perfect smile” who struggled to find her place in a family that prized achievement and success above all else. For the first time, Larson details the chilling events that deprived Rosemary’s brain of oxygen during her birth on September 13, 1918.

Larson writes that when Rose went into labor with Rosemary, her third child, the nurse who was caring for her was reluctant to deliver a baby without a physician on hand. Though the nurse had the necessary training, when the doctor’s arrival was delayed she demanded that Rose “hold her legs together tightly in the hope of delaying the baby’s birth.” When that failed, she resorted to “holding the baby’s head and forcing it back into the birth canal for two excruciating hours.”

As Rosemary grew into toddlerhood, Rose noticed she “was not like the others.” The family did their best to incorporate her into their daily lives, taking her sailing and making sure she was always asked to dance at parties. But as Rosemary got older, she began to have tantrums that sometimes turned violent. At the same time her voluptuous figure was attracting male attention, and Joe became concerned: an unwanted pregnancy in the family could damage his sons’ political future. “The family tried to protect her,” says Larson. 𠇋ut the situation was a ticking time bomb.”

In November 1941, Joe scheduled Rosemary for a lobotomy, an experimental procedure meant to make mentally ill patients more docile. The surgery, writes Larson, involved drilling holes on both sides of Rosemary’s head, inserting a spatula into her cranium near the frontal lobes and turning and scraping. The surgery was botched and Rosemary emerged almost completely disabled.

After housing her in a psychiatric facility in upstate New York for seven years, Joe ordered his daughter sent to Saint Coletta and never saw her again. Her siblings didn’t see her for two decades.

In The Missing Kennedy, also excerpted in this week’s PEOPLE, author Elizabeth Koehler-Pentacoff shares memories of visiting Rosemary at Saint Coletta, where Koehler-Pentacoff’s aunt, Sister Paulus, was one of her caretakers for over thirty years. “Rosie was happy when she had visitors,” says Koehler-Pentacoff. “She loved parties and music and sweets. If we said we brought a box of candy, her eyes lits up. When people visited her, she was in heaven.”

Special Olympics Athletes Unite To Inspire and Design 2022 Special Olympics USA Games Logo

ORLANDO, FL | August 8, 2019: Today, the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games Organizing Committee unveiled its logo for the 2022 USA Games during a celebration ceremony at ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex at Walt Disney World Resort. The logo—for the first time in the Games’ history—was inspired and designed by nine artistic and talented Special Olympics athletes.

Along with unveiling the logo, the Organizing Committee announced Jersey Mike’s Subs as Presenting Partner and The Walt Disney Company as Host during the event.

For the first time in the Special Olympics USA Games’ history, Special Olympics athletes from across the nation united during a three-day workshop in Orlando, Fla., in May where they worked with professional designers from national advertising agency partner, Publicis Seattle, to provide the vision for the 2022 USA Games logo, as well as the primary color palette that explodes with life. The mark represents the natural elements of Florida culminating in a fiery spark of the Special Olympics spirit.

The nine athletes included: Aarushi Pratap (Fashion Design, Tampa, Fla.), Andrew Weatherly (Abstract Painting, Closter, N.J.), Caroline Shin (Web Design, Tallahassee, Fla.), Coby Fineran (Drawing, Manning, Iowa), Haley Waggoner (Cake Decorating, Lincoln, Neb.), Lee Savage (Drawing, Lake Worth, Fla.), Mariah Gilbert (Drawing, Spokane, Wash.), Marta Páramo (Painting, Miami, Fla.) and Patrice Jetter (Graphic Design, Hamilton, N.J.).

“It is an honor to be part of the team that created the logo,” Special Olympics athlete Lee Savage said. “This was so important to us because Special Olympics is such an important part of our lives. We are proud of the logo and hope it can be an inspiration to society.”

“This logo tells a story of how a combined passion for sports, perseverance and art can literally come to life on a blank canvas,” said Joe Dzaluk, President & CEO of the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games. “These incredible athletes used their unique talents to inspire and design an iconic image for the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games brand, and it proved to be more meaningful than any of us could have ever imagined.”

Iranian-American filmmaker Rayka Zehtabchi, best known for her 2018 Academy Award-winning documentary short Period. End of Sentence., directed a mini documentary that was filmed during the Unified Logo Workshop. This unique approach to developing the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games logo served as the perfect platform to unlock the creativity and confidence of the Special Olympics athletes. Zehtabchi’s film beautifully captures the positive impact of the process and the undeniable spirit and talent of the athletes. Zehtabchi’s 5-minute documentary can be viewed here .

Jersey Mike’s has committed to be the Presenting Partner of the Games. “Giving…making a difference in someone’s life” has been the mission of Jersey Mike’s from the beginning. Since 2010, Jersey Mike’s locations throughout the country have raised more than $41 million for worthy local charities and have distributed more than 2 million free sub sandwiches to help numerous causes.

“Jersey Mike’s has a long-standing tradition of dedication, excellence and passionately supporting its communities, which mirrors the attributes of Special Olympics athletes across the nation,” said Peter Cancro, founder and CEO of Jersey Mike’s Franchise Systems, Inc. “Sports teach us valuable life lessons about teamwork and leadership, and Jersey Mike’s is proud to support the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games.”

The Walt Disney Company is the Host for the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games, offering its 220-acre ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex at Walt Disney World Resort as a premier venue for amateur sports in the nation. The venue is one part of the company’s multi-faceted support of the Special Olympics movement and the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games, which also includes additional sponsorship and in-kind support for the USA Games, as well as employee volunteerism and ESPN’s role as the Global Presenting Sponsor of Special Olympics Unified Sports.

“Special Olympics athletes provide inspiration to millions of people around the world,” said Rena Langley, Senior Vice President, Walt Disney World Public Affairs and Communications. “The commitment, dedication and leadership skills it takes to compete at this level is an incredible accomplishment and we are honored to be the presenting partner of the volunteer program and host of the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games at ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex at Walt Disney World Resort.”

Other organizations that have committed as Platinum Partners of the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games include Orlando Health and Orange County.

Taking place from June 5 through June 11, the 2022 Games will feature more than 4,000 athletes, 10,000 volunteers, 1,500 coaches, and 125,000 fans from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, all of whom will unite in the Orlando area and participate in one of the country’s most cherished sporting events – the Special Olympics USA Games.

The Games will be comprised of as many as 16 Olympic-type team and individual sports, and as many as five demonstration sports. To learn more about the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games, please visit and follow the organization on Facebook , Instagram and Twitter .

About 2022 Special Olympics USA Games

Orlando was officially announced as the host city for the 2022 Special Olympics USA Games in May 2018. Taking place from June 5-11, 2022, more than 4,000 athletes, 10,000 volunteers, 1,500 coaches and 125,000 fans from all 50 states and the District of Columbia will travel to unite and participate in one of the world’s most cherished sporting events. The Games will be comprised of as many as 16 Olympic-type team and individual sports and will be hosted at various world-class venues across the Orlando area.

About Jersey Mike’s

Jersey Mike’s, a fast-casual sub sandwich franchise with more than 2,000 locations open and under development nationwide, believes that making a sub sandwich and making a difference can be one and the same. Jersey Mike’s offers A Sub Above®, serving authentic fresh sliced subs on freshly baked bread – the same recipe it started with in 1956 – and is passionate about giving back to its local communities. For more information, please visit or follow us on Facebook and Twitter .

About The Walt Disney Company and Special Olympics

The Walt Disney Company and ESPN are proud of their 34-year relationship with Special Olympics, together helping end discrimination against people with intellectual disabilities. In recent years, Disney and ESPN have continued to deepen their relationship with the Special Olympics movement through donation, program sponsorship and programming.
In recent years, The Walt Disney Company’s commitment to Special Olympics has included: Support for the Special Olympics’ 50 th Anniversary celebration and global inclusion campaign (“The Revolution is Inclusion”), including a year-long “Game Changers” storytelling initiative Presenting Sponsorship of the 2018 Special Olympics USA Games and the Games Volunteer Program Disney VoluntEARS engagement at Special Olympics events ESPN’s Global Presenting Sponsorship of Special Olympics Unified Sports, which joins people with and without intellectual disabilities to practice, train and play together and ESPN’s role as Official Broadcaster of the 2015, 2017 and 2019 Special Olympics World Games, the 2018 Special Olympics USA Games and the 50 th Anniversary of Special Olympics events in Chicago.

The Kennedy Family Secret That Helped Inspire the Special Olympics - HISTORY

Macaroni the White House pony

A loyal steed for the First Daughter

Caroline Kennedy sits astride Macaroni on the South Lawn of the White House.

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Presidential pets have always been celebrities of sorts, from Checkers the dog to Socks the Cat, but for a few years one could regularly be seen nibbling on the White House lawn.

Macaroni, a 10-year-old part-Shetland gelding, was given to young Caroline Kennedy as a gift from Lyndon B. Johnson.

Though usually stabled at the Kennedy family home in Virginia, the pony was often brought in for Caroline and her friends to ride, sometimes accompanied by another pony, Tex.

Macaroni made for good entertainment for visiting dignitaries. In 1962, she tried to steal a bunch of daffodils out of the hands of Queen Farah of Iran, and the next year she received an ornate saddle from King Hassan II of Morocco.

Amid wide public fascination with the seemingly perfect “Camelot” of the Kennedy household, Caroline and Macaroni appeared together on the cover of the Sept. 7, 1962 issue of LIFE Magazine.

That sweet, idyllic cover would go on to inspire a fairly popular song by a young songwriter named Neil Diamond.

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Secret Service agent Bob Foster leads Caroline Kennedy on a ride with Macaroni.

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Macaroni accepts a treat while grazing the South Lawn.

Caroline Kennedy rides Macaroni while an unidentified boy rides Tex.

Image: Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

President John F. Kennedy adjusts Caroline's saddle.

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

President Kennedy, John Jr. and Caroline play with Macaroni and Tex.

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Image: JFK Presidential Library and museum

Government employee Helen Milson feeds sugar to Macaroni on the South Lawn.

During a weekend at Camp David, Caroline and Macaroni test out a new saddle given to the family by King Hassan II of Morocco.

Watch the video: Eunice Kennedy Shrivers Message of Hope