Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi


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Guglielmo Marconi was born at Bologna, Italy, on 25th April 1874. His father, Giuseppe Marconi, was an Italian landowner, and his mother, Annie Jameson, was from Ireland.

Marconi was educated at the Technical Institute of Livorno and attended the University of Bologna. In 1890 he began experimenting with wireless telegraphy. The apparatus he used was based on the ideas of the German physicist, Heinrich Hertz. Marconi improved Hertz's design by earthing the transmitter and receiver, and found that an insulated aerial enabled him to increase the distance of transmission.

After patenting his wireless telegraphy system in 1896 he established the Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in London. In 1898 Marconi successfully transmitted signals across the English Channel and in 1901 established communication with St. John's, Newfoundland, from Poldhu in Cornwall.

Other inventions by Marconi included the magnetic detector (1902), horizontal direction telegraphy (1905) and the continuous wave system (1912). He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Ferdinand Braun in 1909.

Marconi's system was adopted by the Royal Navy. During the First World War wireless telepathy was widely employed by wartime ground forces. Large naval vessels were fitted with radios, although when they were used, it did make it easier for enemy submarines to discover where they were. Reconnaissance aircraft that had enough power to carry wireless sets (they weighed 50kg) were able to communicate the position of enemy artillery.

After the war Marconi lived aboard his yacht Elettra, which served as a home, laboratory and receiving station. In the remaining years of his life he experimented with shortwaves and microwaves. Guglielmo Marconi, who was a strong supporter of the Italian fascist leader Benito Mussolini, died in 1937.


Guglielmo Marconi and the Birth of Radio

Guglielmo Marconi successfully made the first transatlantic radio transmission on December 12, 1901.

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) was a mere 27 years old when he successfully made the first transatlantic radio transmission on December 12, 1901.

Inspired by the German physicist Heinrich Hertz, who had solidified and proved the theory of electromagnetic waves, Marconi began experimenting with radio waves at a very young age. Despite having moderate success in his experimentations, there was little support to be garnered for his findings in his native Italy, so Marconi moved to England in 1896, where he was assured by a colleague that it would be easier to source developmental funding. Over the next few years, he increased the distances covered by his transmissions, even managing to broadcast across the English Channel in 1899.

Marconi set up a station on the South East coast of Ireland, at Marconi House, Rosslare Strand, Co. Wexford in 1901. This was to act as an intermediary station between Marconi’s base at The Poldhu Wireless Station in Cornwall, England and a subsequent station on the West coast of Ireland in Clifden in Co. Galway. This would provide the power necessary for his landmark experiment.

On December 12 th , 1901 Marconi was successful in sending a signal across the Atlantic. The transmission was received at St. John’s, Newfoundland, over two thousand miles away from its starting point in Cornwall. The transmission consisted of three clicks the Morse Code signal for ‘S’ and would pave the way for the first radio message, which was broadcast twelve months later, in 1902.

Weekly Newsletter

In 1937, several months after Marconi’s death, the Journal of the Royal Society of Arts published an extensive analysis of his work in the field of radio transmission. With a wide range of Marconi’s diagrams, highlighting the construction of his early devices, along with an approachable guide to the achievements of the Italian inventor, an essential read for any scholar with even a passing interest in the history of broadcasting.


Education and early work

Marconi’s father was Italian and his mother Irish. Educated first in Bologna and later in Florence, Marconi then went to the technical school in Leghorn, where, in studying physics, he had every opportunity for investigating electromagnetic wave technique, following the earlier mathematical work of James Clerk Maxwell and the experiments of Heinrich Hertz, who first produced and transmitted radio waves, and Sir Oliver Lodge, who conducted research on lightning and electricity.

In 1894 Marconi began experimenting at his father’s estate near Bologna, using comparatively crude apparatuses: an induction coil for increasing voltages, with a spark discharger controlled by a Morse key at the sending end and a simple coherer (a device designed to detect radio waves) at the receiver. After preliminary experiments over a short distance, he first improved the coherer then, by systematic tests, he showed that the range of signaling was increased by using a vertical aerial with a metal plate or cylinder at the top of a pole connected to a similar plate on the ground. The range of signaling was thus increased to about 2.4 km (1.5 miles), enough to convince Marconi of the potentialities of this new system of communication. During this period he also conducted simple experiments with reflectors around the aerial to concentrate the radiated electrical energy into a beam instead of spreading it in all directions.

Receiving little encouragement to continue his experiments in Italy, he went, in 1896, to London, where he was soon assisted by Sir William Preece, the chief engineer of the post office. Marconi filed his first patent in England in June 1896 and, during that and the following year, gave a series of successful demonstrations, in some of which he used balloons and kites to obtain greater height for his aerials. He was able to send signals over distances of up to 6.4 km (4 miles) on the Salisbury Plain and to nearly 14.5 km (9 miles) across the Bristol Channel. These tests, together with Preece’s lectures on them, attracted considerable publicity both in England and abroad, and in June 1897 Marconi went to La Spezia, where a land station was erected and communication was established with Italian warships at distances of up to 19 km (11.8 miles).

There remained much skepticism about the useful application of this means of communication and a lack of interest in its exploitation. But Marconi’s cousin Jameson Davis, a practicing engineer, financed his patent and helped in the formation of the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company, Ltd. (changed in 1900 to Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Company, Ltd.). During the first years, the company’s efforts were devoted chiefly to showing the full possibilities of radiotelegraphy. A further step was taken in 1899 when a wireless station was established at South Foreland, England, for communicating with Wimereux in France, a distance of 50 km (31 miles) in the same year, British battleships exchanged messages at 121 km (75 miles).


OUR HISTORY

The Marconi Event Centre began as the Guglielmo Marconi Society, founded as a not-for-profit organization that advocated for the advancement and fostering of Italian culture in the community of Sault Ste. Marie.

Since 1912, the organization has grown into a well-known banquet hall that is dedicated to making any special event memorable including wedding receptions, bridal showers, stag and does, rehearsal dinner parties, graduations, banquets and corporate events.

Our catering services also provide an authentic taste of Italian flavour to any event and many favourite dishes can be ordered from our newly revised takeout menu.

Be sure to visit the Marconi to inquire about our recent changes and renovations as we continue to diversify, challenge our own imaginations to restore and preserve our legacy to the families of Italian immigrants in the community of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.

Guglielmo Marconi

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Guglielmo Marconi was born in Bologna, Italy, on April 25, 1874, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi, an Italian country gentleman, and Annie Jameson, daughter of Andrew Jameson of Daphne Castle in the County Wexford, Ireland. He was educated privately at Bologna, Florence and Leghorn. Even as a boy he took a keen interest in physical and electrical science and studied the works of Maxwell, Hertz, Righi, Lodge and others. In 1895 he began laboratory experiments at his father&rsquos country estate at Pontecchio where he succeeded in sending wireless signals over a distance of one and a half miles.

In 1896 Marconi took his apparatus to England where he was introduced to Mr. (later Sir) William Preece, Engineer-in-Chief of the Post Office, and later that year was granted the world&rsquos first patent for a system of wireless telegraphy. He demonstrated his system successfully in London, on Salisbury Plain and across the Bristol Channel, and in July 1897 formed The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company Limited (in 1900 re-named Marconi&rsquos Wireless Telegraph Company Limited). In the same year, he gave a demonstration to the Italian Government at Spezia where wireless signals were sent over a distance of twelve miles. In 1899 he established wireless communication between France and England across the English Channel. He erected permanent wireless stations at The Needles, Isle of Wight, at Bournemouth and later at the Haven Hotel, Poole, Dorset.

In 1900 he took out his famous patent No. 7777 for &ldquotuned or syntonic telegraphy&rdquo and, on a historic day in December 1901, determined to prove that wireless waves were not affected by the curvature of the Earth, he used his system for transmitting the first wireless signals across the Atlantic between Poldhu, Cornwall, and St. John&rsquos, Newfoundland, a distance of 2100 miles.

In 1914 he was commissioned in the Italian Army as a Lieutenant being later promoted to Captain, and in 1916 transferred to the Navy in the rank of Commander. He was a member of the Italian Government mission to the United States in 1917 and in 1919 was appointed Italian plenipotentiary delegate to the Paris Peace Conference. He was awarded the Italian Military Medal in 1919 in recognition of his war service.

During his war service in Italy, he returned to his investigation of short waves, which he had used in his first experiments. After further tests by his collaborators in England, an intensive series of trials was conducted in 1923 between experimental installations at the Poldhu Station and in Marconi&rsquos yacht &ldquoElettra&rdquo cruising in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, and this led to the establishment of the beam system for long-distance communication. Proposals to use this system as a means of Imperial communications were accepted by the British Government and the first beam station, linking England and Canada, was opened in 1926, other stations being added the following year.

In 1931 Marconi began research into the propagation characteristics of still shorter waves, resulting in the opening in 1932 of the world&rsquos first microwave radiotelephone link between the Vatican City and the Pope&rsquos summer residence at Castel Gandolfo. Two years later at Sestri Levante, he demonstrated his microwave radio beacon for ship navigation and in 1935, again in Italy, gave a practical demonstration of the principles of radar, the coming of which he had first foretold in a lecture to the American Institute of Radio Engineers in New York in 1922.

He has been the recipient of honorary doctorates of several universities and many other international honours and awards, among them the Nobel Prize for Physics, which in 1909 he shared with Professor Karl Braun, the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts, the John Fritz Medal and the Kelvin Medal. He was decorated by the Tsar of Russia with the Order of St. Anne, the King of Italy created him Commander of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus, and awarded him the Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy in 1902. Marconi also received the freedom of the City of Rome (1903) and was created Chevalier of the Civil Order of Savoy in 1905. Many other distinctions of this kind followed. In 1914 he was both created a Senatore in the Italian Senate and appointed Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order in England. He received the hereditary title of Marchese in 1929.

In 1905 he married the Hon. Beatrice O&rsquoBrien, daughter of the 14th Baron Inchiquin, the marriage being annulled in 1927, in which year he married the Countess Bezzi-Scali of Rome. He had one son and two daughters by his first and one daughter by his second wife. His recreations were hunting, cycling and motoring.


SS Guglielmo Marconi

SS Guglielmo Marconi was an Italian ocean liner launched on 24 September 1961 for Lloyd Triestino's Genoa—Sydney service. Her sister ship was SS Galileo Galilei. Guglielmo Marconi left Genoa on her maiden voyage on November 18th 1963. In 1976, Guglielmo Marconi was transferred to the Naples-Brazil-River Plate service of Italia Line.

  • Guglielmo Marconi (1963–1983)
  • Costa Riviera (1983–1993)
  • American Adventure (1993–1994)
  • Costa Riviera (1994–2001)
  • Liberty (2001-2002)
    (1961–1976) /Italia Crociere (1976–1979), (1979–1983) /Costa Cruises (1983–1985), (1985–1993)
  • American Family Cruises (1993–1994) (1994–2001)

In 1979 she was transferred to Italia Crociere as a full-time cruise ship. This was not a success and she was sold to Costa Lines in 1983. After a two-year rebuild, the ship reappeared as Costa Riviera for Costa Cruises in 1985. Costa Riviera alternated between Caribbean and Alaskan cruising during her time with Costa Cruises.

In 1993, American Family Cruises was launched, a joint venture between Costa and Bruce Nierenburg, to operate cruises aimed at young American families with children. AFC were not successful, and the ship sailed for Genoa in September 1994 where she was converted back to the Costa Riviera, and began cruising her last years in Europe until Costa Riviera was sold for scrap under the name Liberty in 2001.


Marconi and the South Wellfleet Wireless

A young Guglielmo Marconi.

The Birth of an Idea

The experiments of Heinrich Hertz inspired the idea. This German physicist first demonstrated the existence of electric and magnetic waves, and with this revelation young Guglielmo Marconi began dreaming of a way to send messages from transmitter to receiver without the aid of wires. In 1894 Marconi retreated to a top floor laboratory of his family’s Villa Grifone near Bologna, Italy, and at the age of twenty began his experiments in earnest. At first, Marconi used homemade equipment, testing and repeatedly modifying it, each time stretching to greater limits the distance that signals could be received from a transmitter. First it was 30 feet. Then it was one mile. Then it was twenty and fifty miles. By 1901, Marconi achieved a range of 200 miles. Wireless telegraphy was suddenly the rage of Europe – and then of America.

On December 12, 1901 in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Marconi raised a kite with an antenna dangling from it. He sought to prove that radio waves could cross the Atlantic. Through that hanging wire he heard the anticipated signal from across the ocean. The first transatlantic signal from England had been detected.

Spanning the Ocean

The original wireless array.

Impacting Lives

January 18, 1903 the first public two-way wireless communication between Europe and America occurred. With elation, communiques from President Theodore Roosevelt and King Edward VII were translated into international Morse code at the South Wellfleet and English stations, respectively, and were broadcast.

Ocean-going vessels quickly adopted Marconi apparatus to receive news broadcasts, and soon ship-to-shore transmittals were a major operation. Business and social messages could be sent for fifty cents a word. The South Wellfleet station became the lead North American facility for this function. The station’s effectiveness was limited however, so broadcasts were made between 10 pm and 2 am when atmospheric conditions were best.

This brought little enthusiasm from local residents, who endured the sounds of the crashing spark from the great three-foot rotor supplied with 30,000 watts. The sound of the spark could be heard four miles downwind from the station. Eventually, the novelty of wireless telegraphy waned. However, the need for communication at sea remained high. Effective communication resulted in numerous sea rescues, culminating in the Carpathia’s wireless-aided rescue of over 700 people from the Titanic in 1912.

For fifteen years the South Wellfleet sparkgap transmitter continued in commercial use. Skilled telegraphers sent out messages at the rate of 17 words a minute, and station CC (Cape Cod) served in effect as the first “Voice of America.”

Four boys standing within one of the downed Marconi towers in the early 1920s. With the easternmost towers threatened by erosion, the station had been dismantled, scrapped and abandoned following World War I.

Professional Honors

Marconi was elected an honorary member of the Institute of Radio Engineers, one of IEEE's precursors, on August 14, 1917. Among the many honors he received were the Nobel Prize for physics in 1909 the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts and the 1932 Kelvin Medal of the Institution of Civil Engineers. The Italian government decorated him with the Italian order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus and the Grand Cross of the Crown of Italy. In 1915 he was nominated Senatore of the Kingdom of Italy. In the United States, he received the Franklin Institute's Franklin medal, the American Association of Engineering Societies' John Fritz medal, and the Medal of Honor of the Institute of Radio Engineers.


Biography [ edit | edit source ]

Marconi was born into the Italian nobility as Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi in Bologna on 25 April 1865, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi (an Italian aristocratic landowner from Porretta Terme) and of his Irish/Scots wife, Annie Jameson (daughter of Andrew Jameson of Daphne Castle in County Wexford, Ireland and granddaughter of John Jameson, founder of whiskey distillers Jameson & Sons. Between the ages of two and six Marconi, along with his elder brother Alfonso, was brought up by his mother in the English town of Bedford.After returning to Italy he received his early education privately in Bologna in the lab of Augusto Righi, in Florence at the Istituto Cavallero and, later, in Livorno.[not in citation given] As a child, according to Robert McHenry, Marconi did not do well in school,though historian Corradi Giuliano in his biography characterizes him as a true genius.Baptized as a Catholic, he had been brought up as a member of the Anglican Church, being married into it (although this marriage was later annulled). Before his marriage to Maria Christina in 1927, Marconi was confirmed in the Catholic faith and became a devout member of the Church.

During his early years, Marconi had an interest in science and electricity. One of the scientific developments during this era came from Heinrich Hertz, who, beginning in 1888, demonstrated that one could produce and detect electromagnetic radiation—now generally known as radio waves, at the time more commonly called "Hertzian waves" or "aetheric waves". Hertz's death in 1894 brought published reviews of his earlier discoveries, and a renewed interest on the part of Marconi. He was permitted to briefly study the subject under Augusto Righi, a University of Bologna physicist and neighbour of Marconi who had done research on Hertz's work.

Marconi began to conduct experiments, building much of his own equipment in the attic of his home at the Villa Griffone in Pontecchio, Italy, with the help of his butler Mignani. His goal was to use radio waves to create a practical system of "wireless telegraphy"—i.e. the transmission of telegraph messages without connecting wires as used by the electric telegraph. This was not a new idea—numerous investigators had been exploring wireless telegraph technologies for over 50 years, but none had proven technically and commercially successful. Marconi's system had the following components:

.A relatively simple oscillator, or spark-producing radio transmitter.

.A wire or capacity area placed at a height above the ground

.A coherer receiver, which was a modification of Edouard Branly's original device, with refinements to increase sensitivity and reliability

.A telegraph key to operate the transmitter to send short and long pulses, corresponding to the dots-and-dashes of Morse code and

.A telegraph register, activated by the coherer, which recorded the received Morse code dots and dashes onto a roll of paper tape.

Similar configurations using spark-gap transmitters plus coherer-receivers had been tried by others, but many were unable to achieve transmission ranges of more than a few hundred metres.

Marconi, just twenty years old, began his first experiments working on his own with the help of his butler Mignani. In the summer of 1894, he built a storm alarm made up of a battery, a coherer, and an electric bell, which went off if there was lightning. Soon after he was able to make a bell ring on the other side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench.

One night in December, Guglielmo woke his mother up and invited her into his secret workshop and showed her the experiment he had created. The next day he also showed his work to his father, who, when he was certain there were no wires, gave his son all of the money he had in his wallet so Guglielmo could buy more materials.[citation needed]

In the summer of 1895 Marconi moved his experimentation outdoors and continued to experiment on his father's estate in Bologna. After increasing the length of the transmitter and receiver antennas, arranging them vertically, and positioning the antenna so that it touched the ground, the range increased significantly.Soon he was able to transmit signals over a hill, a distance of approximately 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi).By this point he concluded that with additional funding and research, a device could become capable of spanning greater distances and would prove valuable both commercially and militarily.

Marconi wrote to the Ministry of Post and Telegraphs, then under the direction of the honorable Pietro Lacava, explaining his wireless telegraph machine and asking for funding. He never received a response to his letter which was eventually dismissed by the Minister who wrote "to the Longara" on the document, referring to the insane asylum on Via della Lungara in Rome.

In 1896, Marconi spoke with his family friend Carlo Gardini,Honorary Consul at the United States Consulate in Bologna, about leaving Italy to go to England. Gardini wrote a letter of introduction to the Ambassador of Italy in London, Annibale Ferrero, explaining who Marconi was and about these extraordinary discoveries. In his response, Ambassador Ferrero advised them not to reveal the results until after they had obtained the copyrights. He also encouraged him to come to England where he believed it would be easier to find the necessary funds to convert the findings from Marconi's experiment into a practical use. Finding little interest or appreciation for his work in Italy, Marconi travelled to London in early 1896 at the age of 21, accompanied by his mother, to seek support for his work Marconi spoke fluent English in addition to Italian. Marconi arrived at Dover and at Customs the Customs officer opened his case to find various contraptions and apparatus. The customs officer immediately contacted the Admiralty in London. While there, Marconi gained the interest and support of William Preece, the Chief Electrical Engineer of the British Post Office.

The apparatus that Marconi possessed at that time was similar to that of one in 1882 by A. E. Dolbear, of Tufts College, which used a spark coil generator and a carbon granular rectifier for reception. A plaque on the outside of BT Centre commemorates Marconi's first public transmission of wireless signals from that site.[23] A series of demonstrations for the British government followed—by March 1897, Marconi had transmitted Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) across Salisbury Plain. On 13 May 1897, Marconi sent the world's first ever wireless communication over open sea. The experiment, based in Wales, witnessed a message transversed over the Bristol Channel from Flat Holm Island to Lavernock Point in Penarth, a distance of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). The message read "Are you ready".The transmitting equipment was almost immediately relocated to Brean Down Fort on the Somerset coast, stretching the range to 16 kilometres (9.9 mi).

Marconi operating apparatus similar to that used by him to transmit the first wireless signal across the Atlantic Ocean, 1901.

Impressed by these and other demonstrations, Preece introduced Marconi's ongoing work to the general public at two important London lectures: "Telegraphy without Wires", at the Toynbee Hall on 11 December 1896 and "Signaling through Space without Wires", given to the Royal Institution on 4 June 1897.

Numerous additional demonstrations followed, and Marconi began to receive international attention. In July 1897, he carried out a series of tests at La Spezia, in his home country, for the Italian government. A test for Lloyds between Ballycastle and Rathlin Island, Ireland, was conducted on 6 July 1898. The English channel was crossed on 27 March 1899, from Wimereux, France to South Foreland Lighthouse, England, and in the autumn of 1899, the first demonstrations in the United States took place, with the reporting of the America's Cup international yacht races at New York.

Marconi sailed to the United States at the invitation of the New York Herald newspaper to cover the America's Cup races off Sandy Hook, NJ. The transmission was done aboard the SS Ponce, a passenger ship of the Porto Rico Line.Marconi left for England on 8 November 1899 on the American Line's SS St. Paul, and he and his assistants installed wireless equipment aboard during the voyage. On 15 November the St. Paul became the first ocean liner to report her imminent return to Great Britain by wireless when Marconi's Royal Needles Hotel radio station contacted her sixty-six nautical miles off the English coast.

At the turn of the 20th century, Marconi began investigating the means to signal completely across the Atlantic, in order to compete with the transatlantic telegraph cables. Marconi established a wireless transmitting station at Marconi House, Rosslare Strand, Co. Wexford in 1901 to act as a link between Poldhu in Cornwall and Clifden in Co. Galway. He soon made the announcement that on 12 December 1901, using a 500-foot (150 m) kite-supported antenna for reception, the message was received at Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland (now part of Canada) signals transmitted by the company's new high-power station at Poldhu, Cornwall. The distance between the two points was about 2,200 miles (3,500 km). Heralded as a great scientific advance, there was—and continues to be—considerable skepticism about this claim. The exact wavelength used is not known, but it is fairly reliably determined to have been in the neighborhood of 350 meters. The tests took place at a time of day during which the entire transatlantic path was in daylight. We now know (although Marconi did not know then) that this was the worst possible choice. At this medium wavelength, long distance transmission in the daytime is not possible because of heavy absorption of the skywave in the ionosphere. It was not a blind test—Marconi knew in advance to listen for a repetitive signal of three clicks, signifying the Morse code letter S. The clicks were reported to have been heard faintly and sporadically. There was no independent confirmation of the reported reception, and the transmissions were difficult to distinguish from atmospheric noise. (A detailed technical review of Marconi's early transatlantic work appears in John S. Belrose's work of 1995.) The Poldhu transmitter was a two-stage circuit.

Feeling challenged by skeptics, Marconi prepared a better organized and documented test. In February 1902, the SS Philadelphia sailed west from Great Britain with Marconi aboard, carefully recording signals sent daily from the Poldhu station. The test results produced coherer-tape reception up to 1,550 miles (2,490 km), and audio reception up to 2,100 miles (3,400 km). The maximum distances were achieved at night, and these tests were the first to show that for mediumwave and longwave transmissions, radio signals travel much farther at night than in the day. During the daytime, signals had only been received up to about 700 miles (1,100 km), less than half of the distance claimed earlier at Newfoundland, where the transmissions had also taken place during the day. Because of this, Marconi had not fully confirmed the Newfoundland claims, although he did prove that radio signals could be sent for hundreds of kilometres, despite some scientists' belief they were essentially limited to line-of-sight distances.

On 17 December 1902, a transmission from the Marconi station in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada, became the world's first radio message to cross the Atlantic from North America. In 1901, Marconi built a station near South Wellfleet, Massachusetts that on 18 January 1903 sent a message of greetings from Theodore Roosevelt, the President of the United States, to King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, marking the first transatlantic radio transmission originating in the United States. This station also was one of the first to receive the distress signals coming from the RMS Titanic. However, consistent transatlantic signalling was difficult to establish.

Marconi began to build high-powered stations on both sides of the Atlantic to communicate with ships at sea, in competition with other inventors. In 1904 a commercial service was established to transmit nightly news summaries to subscribing ships, which could incorporate them into their on-board newspapers. In 1906 he met and become friend of Albret Einstein and Marie Curie. A regular transatlantic radio-telegraph service was finally begun on 17 October 1907 between Clifden Ireland and Glace Bay, but even after this the company struggled for many years to provide reliable communication to others.

The two radio operators aboard the RMS Titanic—Jack Phillips and Harold Bride—were not employed by the White Star Line, but by the Marconi International Marine Communication Company. After the sinking of the ocean liner on 15 April 1912, survivors were rescued by the RMS Carpathia of the Cunard Line.Also employed by the Marconi Company was David Sarnoff, who would later head RCA. Wireless communications were reportedly maintained for 72 hours between Carpathia and Sarnoff,but Sarnoff's involvement has been questioned by some modern historians. When Carpathia docked in New York, Marconi went aboard with a reporter from The New York Times to talk with Bride, the surviving operator.On 18 June 1912, Marconi gave evidence to the Court of Inquiry into the loss of Titanic regarding the marine telegraphy's functions and the procedures for emergencies at sea.Britain's postmaster-general summed up, referring to the Titanic disaster, "Those who have been saved, have been saved through one man, Mr. Marconi. and his marvelous invention."Marconi was offered free passage on Titanic before she sank, but had taken Lusitania three days earlier. As his daughter Degna later explained, he had paperwork to do and preferred the public stenographer aboard that vessel.

In 1913,during an unforeseen,Marie Curie needed Marconi's help because she did not know how to finish a project provided by the Government of France, until today have no idea what it was , and even if they managed to finish, but according to some reports , it was something that no one should know that the government was planning and to perform this act, needed a good scientist, but it never was nothing confirmed. in 1913 , Marie Curie writes that he was a great person and a very intelligent scientist she had a great admiration for him .

In 1914, Marconi was made a Senator in the Italian Senate and appointed Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order in the UK. During World War I, Italy joined the Allied side of the conflict, and Marconi was placed in charge of the Italian military's radio service. He attained the rank of lieutenant in the Italian Army and of commander in the Italian Navy. In 1929, he was made a marquess by King Victor Emmanuel III.

Marconi joined the Italian Fascist party in 1923. In 1930, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini appointed him President of the Royal Academy of Italy, which made Marconi a member of the Fascist Grand Council.


History of Wireless: Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi, (April 25, 1874– July 20, 1937) was an Italian inventor considered by many as the father of wireless data communications. In 1899, Marconi successfully demonstrated long wireless telegraphy by transmitting Morse code across the English Channel, more than 30 km. He shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun “in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy.”

One Response to History of Wireless: Guglielmo Marconi

As early as 1892, Nikola Tesla created a basic design for radio. On November 8, 1898 he patented a radio controlled robot-boat. Tesla used this boat which was controlled by radio waves in the Electrical Exhibition in 1898, Madison Square Garden.

Tesla’s robot-boat was constructed with an antenna, which transmitted the radio waves coming from the command post where Tesla was standing. Those radio waves were received by a radio sensitive device called coherer, which transmitted the radio waves into mechanical movements of the propellers on the boat.

Tesla changed the boat’s direction, with manually operated controls on the command post. Since this was the first application of radio waves, it made front page news, in America, at that time.

Most of us, think of Guglielmo Marconi as the father of radio, and Tesla is unknown for his work in radio. Marconi claimed all the first patents for radio, something originally developed by Tesla. Nikola Tesla tried to prove that he was the creator of radio but it wasn’t until 1943, where Marconi’s patents were deemed invalid however, people still have no idea about Tesla’s work with radio.

Tesla filed his own basic radio patent applications in 1897. They were granted in 1900. Marconi’s first patent application in America, filed on November 10, 1900, was turned down. Marconi’s revised applications over the next three years were repeatedly rejected because of the priority of Tesla and other inventors.

The Patent Office made the following comment in 1903:

Many of the claims are not patentable over Tesla patent numbers 645,576 and 649,621, of record, the amendment to overcome said references as well as Marconi’s pretended ignorance of the nature of a “Tesla oscillator” being little short of absurd… the term “Tesla oscillator” has become a household word on both continents [Europe and North America].

But no patent is truly safe, as Tesla’s career demonstrates. In 1900, the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, Ltd. began thriving in the stock markets—due primarily to Marconi’s family connections with English aristocracy. British Marconi stock soared from $3 to $22 per share and the glamorous young Italian nobleman was internationally acclaimed.

Both Edison and Andrew Carnegie invested in Marconi and Edison became a consulting engineer of American Marconi. Then, on December 12, 1901, Marconi for the first time transmitted and received signals across the Atlantic Ocean.

Otis Pond, an engineer then working for Tesla, said, “Looks as if Marconi got the jump on you.” Tesla replied, “Marconi is a good fellow. Let him continue. He is using seventeen of my patents.”

But Tesla’s calm confidence was shattered in 1904, when the U.S. Patent Office suddenly and surprisingly reversed its previous decisions and gave Marconi a patent for the invention of radio. The reasons for this have never been fully explained, but the powerful financial backing for Marconi in the United States suggests one possible explanation.

Tesla was embroiled in other problems at the time, but when Marconi won the Nobel Prize in 1911, Tesla was furious. He sued the Marconi Company for infringement in 1915, but was in no financial condition to litigate a case against a major corporation.


April 25, 1874 Birth, Bologna (Italy).

1895 First began conducting experiments with wireless signals, Bologna (Italy).

1896 Demonstrates wireless signals advancements upon moving to London, London (England).

1897 Forms The Wireless Telegraph Company Limited (later renamed Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company Limited).

1897 Demonstrates wireless signal capabilities to Italian government.

1899 Wireless communication established across the English Channel.

1900 Takes patent No. 7777 for tuned or syntonic telegraphy.

1901 Sends wireless signals 2100 miles from Poldhu, Cornwall to St. John's, Newfoundland, proving that signals could be sent around the earth's curvature.

1902 Demonstrates "daylight effect" relative to wireless communication.

1902 Transmitted first complete message from Newfoundland to Nova Scotia to Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA.

1902 Awarded Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy.

1903 Awarded the freedom of the city of Rome, Italy.

1905 Patented horizontal directional aerial.

1909 Awarded 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics alongside Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".

1912 Patented a timed spark system for generating continuous waves.

1914 Lieutenant and Captain, Italian army.

1914 Senatore, Italian Senate.

1914 Honorary Knight, Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, England.

1916 Commander, Italian Navy.

1917 Member of Italian government mission to US.

1919 Italian plenipotentiary delegate, Paris Peace Conference.

1919 Awarded Italian Military Medal for military service.

1922 Predicts the coming of radar and its uses at the American Institute of Radio Engineers.

1923 Resumed experiements with shortwave signals.

1929 Received hereditary title of Marchese.

1930 President, Royal Academy of Italy.

1932 Created first microwave radiotelephone link between Vatican City and Castel Gandalfo.


Watch the video: Guglielmo Marconi