Frank Hugh Long

Frank Hugh Long


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Frank Hugh Long, the son of William Hugh Long and Amy Amelia Long (nee Reid), was born in Masterton, New Zealand, on 16th June, 1916.

On the outbreak of the Second World War Long joined he Royal Air Force. He was posted to Driffield where he was to fly the long-range bomber, Armstrong Whitworth Whitley. Long then trained other pilots including Leonard Cheshire. He later explained in Bomber Pilot (1943): "I do not think there can have been a single piece of equipment or a single aspect of flying on which he failed to question me... There was the ground crew also, to each of whom Long (Lofty) introduced me individually, talking of their problems, and the background from which they came and explaining the importance of building up a personal relationship with them."

Cheshire recalled: "Lofty... kept drumming into my head the fundamental lesson of never thinking that you have mastered your job, of applying your whole heart and mind to the task of perfecting as far as is humanly possible the techniques of operational flying. He made me practise and re-practise, study and re-study, experiment and re-experiment. I had to sit in the cockpit blindfold and go through the different drills, sit in the rear turret, in the navigator's and the wireless operator's seat, and try and see life from their point of view.... Hardly any Captain that I ever knew would allow his Second Dicky into the driving seat whilst over the danger zone: thus when one was finally passed out and given a crew of one's own, one had no actual experience of handling the controls under fire. But Lofty (Long) was different: he would give me a clout - with his boot if he could possibly manage it - and bawl out at me to get into his seat and take over... Then from the Second Pilot's position he would talk me into the target and back, not always perhaps in the most complimentary of tones, but in a way that gave me a confidence and experience that I could not possibly have otherwise gained. I must have been the only pilot in the squadron who was ever given such a start as this."

Long won the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC). According to The British Gazette: "Pilot Officer Gray and Pilot Officer Long were respectively Pilot and Navigator on a night reconnaissance flight over enemy territory during November, 1939. During the operations a snowstorm was encountered and the aircraft became badly iced-up, in addition to being subjected to anti-aircraft fire. Nevertheless the reconnaissance flight was continued but it was not found possible to reach the objective as eventually weather conditions rendered the aircraft practically impossible to control, the upper surface of one wing and half that of the other wing having been stripped of fabric and one "flap" jammed down. The wireless apparatus also failed. The journey home involved a flight of 342 miles over the sea during very heavy rainstorms and it was mainly due to the skill, courage and splendid team work of Pilot Officer Gray and Pilot Officer Long that the aircraft and crew were brought safely back."

Frank Hugh Long was killed during a mission of 13th March, 1941. Leonard Cheshire later wrote: "Whatever outward face I may have put on it, his loss affected me very deeply and the memory of what I owed him and of all that he stood for remained with me throughout the war. It may sound a peculiar thing to say, and certainly has no rational basis, but I came to think of Lofty as more or less indestructible. It was just, I suppose, that he was so strongly built, so physically fit, and so calm and competent, whatever the situation. Perhaps also there is some innate, subconscious need in man for the perfect model to which one can look up and from which to draw strength and inspiration. Or perhaps in times so uncertain, when even the immediate future was full of the unknown, one would clutch at any straw. At all events, with the night that Lofty failed to return the character of the war changed: I knew now that no one was immune and though in the years that followed I was to meet others with perhaps even greater qualities and greater dedication than Lofty, to whom t also owe my own debt, never again would I look at someone and say, he at least will always come back.''

I do not think there can have been a single piece of equipment or a single aspect of flying on which he failed to question me... There was the ground crew also, to each of whom Long (Lofty) introduced me individually, talking of their problems, and the background from which they came and explaining the importance of building up a personal relationship with them.

Cheshire recalled : "Lofty... I must have been the only pilot in the squadron who was ever given such a start as this."

Long was a New Zealander, and known as Lofty for his alpine stature. Strongly built, broad-shouldered, dark-haired and ofunhurried manner, he was "what we chose amongst ourselves to describe as a 'character'. His juniors he treated as his equals and, as it appeared to us at the time, his seniors as something a little less. Long was meticulous in the preparation of his aircraft, vigilant when flying, calm at times of stress and gifted with a wry humour.

As a mentor he was at once exacting and encouraging. Cheshire came to revere him, possibly even love him. Fifteen pages of Bomber Pilot dwell on the first hours of their acquaintance, and a quarter of the book deals with the six weeks of their partnership. All this was ahead. Long was on leave when Cheshire was put into his crew, but when he returned on the Saturday morning, Cheshire's schooling began.

Pilot Officer Gray and Pilot Officer Long were respectively Pilot and Navigator on a night reconnaissance flight over enemy territory during November, 1939. During the operations a snowstorm was encountered and the aircraft became badly iced-up, in addition to being subjected to anti-aircraft fire.

Nevertheless the reconnaissance flight was continued but it was not found possible to reach the objective as eventually weather conditions rendered the aircraft practically impossible to control, the upper surface of one wing and half that of the other wing having been stripped of fabric and one "flap" jammed down. The journey home involved a flight of 342 miles over the sea during very heavy rainstorms and it was mainly due to the skill, courage and splendid team work of Pilot Officer Gray and Pilot Officer Long that the aircraft and crew were brought safely back.

Whatever outward face I may have put on it, his loss affected me very deeply and the memory of what I owed him and of all that he stood for remained with me throughout the war. At all events, with the night that Lofty failed to return the character of the war changed: I knew now that no one was immune and though in the years that followed I was to meet others with perhaps even greater qualities and greater dedication than Lofty, to whom t also owe my own debt, never again would I look at someone and say, "he at least will always come back.''


Franks

The Franks (Latin: Franci or gens Francorum) were a group of Germanic peoples [1] whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire. [2] Later the term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Western Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine. They imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples. Frankish rulers were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire. [3] [4] [5] [a]

Although the Frankish name does not appear until the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known to the Romans under their own names, both as allies providing soldiers, and as enemies. The new name first appears when the Romans and their allies were losing control of the Rhine region. The Franks were first reported as working together to raid Roman territory. However, from the beginning, the Franks also suffered attacks upon them from outside their frontier area, by the Saxons, for example, and as frontier tribes they desired to move into Roman territory, with which they had had centuries of close contact.

The Germanic tribes which formed the Frankish federation in Late Antiquity are associated with the Weser-Rhine Germanic/Istvaeonic cultural-linguistic grouping. [6] [7] [8]

Frankish peoples inside Rome's frontier on the Rhine river included the Salian Franks who from their first appearance were permitted to live in Roman territory, and the Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks who, after many attempts, eventually conquered the Roman frontier city of Cologne and took control of the left bank of the Rhine. Later, in a period of factional conflict in the 450s and 460s, Childeric I, a Frank, was one of several military leaders commanding Roman forces with various ethnic affiliations in Roman Gaul (roughly modern France). Childeric and his son Clovis I faced competition from the Roman Aegidius as competitor for the "kingship" of the Franks associated with the Roman Loire forces. (According to Gregory of Tours, Aegidius held the kingship of the Franks for 8 years while Childeric was in exile.) This new type of kingship, perhaps inspired by Alaric I, [9] represents the start of the Merovingian dynasty which succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, as well as establishing its leadership over all the Frankish kingdoms on the Rhine frontier. It was on the basis of this Merovingian empire that the resurgent Carolingians eventually came to be seen as the new Emperors of Western Europe in 800.

In the High and Late Middle Ages, Western Europeans shared their allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church and worked as allies in the Crusades beyond Europe in the Levant. In 1099, the crusader population of Jerusalem mostly comprised French settlers who, at the time, were still referred to as Franks, and other Europeans such as Spaniards, Germans and Hungarians. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly continued to refer to the crusaders and West Europeans as Franjī caring little whether they really came from France. [10] The French Crusaders also imported the French language into the Levant, making French the base of the lingua franca (lit. "Frankish language") of the Crusader states. [10] [11] This has had a lasting impact on names for Western Europeans in many languages. [12] [13] [14] Western Europe is known alternatively as "Frangistan" to the Persians. [15]

From the beginning the Frankish kingdoms were politically and legally divided between an eastern more Germanic part, and the western part that the Merovingians had founded on Roman soil. The eastern "Frankish" part came to be known as the new "Holy Roman Empire", and was from early times occasionally called "Germany". Within "Frankish" Western Europe itself, it was part of the original Merovingian or "Salian" Western Frankish kingdom founded in Roman Gaul and speaking Romance languages, which has continued until today to be referred to as "France" – a name derived directly from the Franks.


The Ten Greatest Dicks In History!

This is one list I definitely wish I was on—a ranking of the most fantabulous penises in creation. Some of the ones listed are only so amazing because they were so small (or so much smaller than expected), but still, I’d love to be including here (or anywhere)! I’d feel so genitally special!

One of the more interesting revelations here is that gunman John Dillinger (played in Public Enemies by the decently hung Johnny Depp) was reputed to have such a big one that it was severed and stored at the Smithsonian. Alas, that was just a myth Dillinger had fewer than 12 inches! After all, he was a bank robber, not a bank dick, ba dum pum.

But the loveliest info of all is this little passage:

Steve McQueen‘s penis was described as being the size of two Coors cans welded together. Janice Dickinson said that when Liam Neeson unzipped, an Evian bottle fell out. And when a reporter asked Ava Gardner why she was with 112-pound Frank Sinatra, she quipped that 12 pounds were Frank and the rest was his dick.” I guess Ol’ Blue Eyes should have been called Ol’ Big Piece. That thing stretched from here to eternity! Let’s toast his longish legacy with two Coors cans.


Frank Hugh O’Donnell

Frank Hugh O’Donnell was an Irish politician and journalist, known as a fierce opponent of British imperialism and the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland. His grandfather, Hugh, was a cooper in Carndonagh, and his father was born in the town. Born Francis Hugh MacDonald at a barracks in Devon to a sergeant in the British Army. He was educated in Galway at a Jesuit high school and then at Queen’s College, where he rapidly earned a reputation as an orator and controversialist.

In 1874 he was elected Member of Parliament for Galway but, in a judgement probably influenced by political bias, was convicted of electoral malpractice and removed from office. Undeterred, he returned to the Commons three years later as Member for Dungarvan, Co. Waterford, and held that seat until its abolition in 1885. A provocative and popular figure within the Home Rule League, he served the party with champion filibustering and in 1888 he launched the historic libel action against The Times which led to C. S. Parnell’s exoneration from conspiracy in the Phoenix Park Murders.

In Parliament he often spoke on British imperialism in India in analogy with Irish matters. He received a schooling in Indian nationalism from his friend G. M. Tagore, with whom he, J.C. Meenakshya and four other Irish MPs joined in 1875 to form the Constitutional Society of India. Further information was gleaned from his brother Charles J. O’Donnell, a civil servant in Bihar who earned the nickname ‘the enfant terrible of the ICS’ for his public criticism and exposure of government policy. In 1882 he told Parliament that the Irish Party were ‘the natural representatives and spokesmen for the unrepresented nationalities of the empire’ and in 1883 he threw his weight behind a premature campaign to have Dadabhai Naoroji elected to Parliament. In 1905 he sent a message of support to Shyamji Krishnavarma upon his inauguration of India House.

Defeated by Parnell in his bid for the party leadership, O’Donnell abandoned parliamentary politics and, after joining the Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians), pursued a chequered career of furious pamphleteering. During the Boer War he secured funds from the Transvaal Government to militate against Irish enlistment, but he was later accused of pocketing the money and condemned by the United Irishman. He spent much of his later career campaigning for secular and mixed education in a series of determined sallies against the political might of the Catholic clergy. He died unmarried at London, and is buried at Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin.

DERRY JOURNAL ARTICLE ON O’DONNELL’S VISIT TO CARN

– from The Derry Journal, May 25th, 1982

In the palmy days of Parnell it seems to have been regarded as an event of some moment when an Irish town was visited by a Member of Parliament. Carndonagh was the scene of one such occasion back in 1877, and the politician concerned was Mr. Frank Hugh O’Donnell.

A ‘Journal’ account of the big day began by tracing O’Donnell’s association with Carn his grandfather, Hugh, had worked there as a cooper and it was there that his father had been born. The report proceeded to describe the advent of the great man in graphic terms. ‘Shortly after 2 o’clock on a beautifully fine day Mr. O’Donnell arrived in the town accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. O’Connell, of Moville, where he is staying. Soon the intelligence obtained circulation along the hillsides, glens and valleys of the country, and a large and enthusiastic crowd came swiftly to the town: –

The people of Carndonagh and surrounding districts ‘were evidently proud that the son of a British office, formerly one of themselves, who had won his laurels amid trials and adversity, was here in their midst’. They demonstrated their gratification by illuminating the town as darkness fell and taking part in a procession ‘bearing lighted tar barrels’. It was past eight o’clock when Mr. John Doherty, chairman of the Board of Guardian, took the chair on a platform that had been erected in Church Street and introduced the cause of all the excitement.

The contents of the speech delivered by Mr. O’Donnell from that rostrum in what is now Bridge Street suggest that he shared the point of view expressed many years afterwards by a noted Derry orator that ‘the people aren’t interested in statistics.’ If we are to accept the repeated cheers credited by the ‘Journal’ reporter, his words appear to have had a rousing effect on the audience. ‘Who,’ asked Frank Hugh, ‘could gaze unmoved upon the Aileach of the kings, the seat of the enthronement of 40 Northern monarchs of Erin? (cheers). Who could sand on the banks of the Castle River, at Buncrana, and recognise without a bitter pang that a ruined turret was al that remained of the noble castle of the proud O’Doherty? What heart could remain unstirred at the remembrance of the last closing scenes in the life of gallant Cahir Roe and the fate of the heroic Shaun O’Doherty, dragged at the tail of a wild horse through the streets of Buncrana, and beating out his faithful life upon the flinty tracks because he had refused to betray to the English victor the refuge of his chieftain brother? (prolonged cheers). Every spot of Inishowen was holy and historic ground (cheers). Upon it had beaten the fiercest fury of the foreign invasion but, in spite of confiscation and massacre and eviction, the men of Inishowen and of Donegal had declined to go either to hell or Connaught (loud and prolonged cheers) – but were still more resolute than ever that the rule of the stranger should cease to weigh upon the old land of O’Doherty and O’Donnell (great cheers).’

A brief reference to the parliamentary tactics of the day brought the speech to a close. The Irish Party were not obstructionist for the sake of obstruction. If John Bull wanted a peaceable and happy life, he had only to grant entire justice to Ireland and Mr. Parnell (great and prolonged cheers from the audience) would cease from troubling him.

A few words from Father Devine, C. C., Carndonagh, a vote of thanks to ‘the Member’ proposed by Dr. O’Doherty and seconded by Mr. Harkin, and the crowd dispersed – some of tehm no doubt to assess the merit of Mr. O’Donnell’s oration and to ponder the political problems of the hour over a measure or two of a commodity which was considerably more plentiful in the Inishowen of 105 years ago than it is today.

Imagine the reaction there would be in these days of countless forms of recreation and amenity – the motor car, the telephone, television, radio, the cinema, electricity, central heating, various sporting activities, municipal complexes, discos and the rest – if it was to be suggested that a pleasant and elevating evening should be spent listening to the outpourings of an elected representative, however eminent!

Life was hard in the Ireland of a century ago, and for many years later. Opportunities for relaxation were few, far between and lacking in variety. But were the people less happy than the pleasure-sated and often bored masses of today? I, for one, very much doubt it.

Derry Journal Article on Frank Hugh O’Donnell’s visit to Carn


Long, Frank Hugh (Lofty) (Engels)

Frank grew up in Masterton. His dad was an English Immigrant. He owned several butchers in Masterton. Frank left in May 1939 to England and joined the Royal Air Force, after that he got stationed at de RAF base Driffield.

Together with Pilot Gray working as a navigator they were doing a reconnaissance flight above hostel area. During the flight they got stuck in a snowstorm and the plane was gathering a lot of ice. Besides that they also came across dangerous crossfire. Because of the poor weather conditions the plane was difficult to control and they lost radio contact. During the 550 km flight back and heavy rainshowers, the expertise, courage and teamwork between Gray and Long, the crew managed to get back safely.

In October 1940 he married Margaret Rainey. She also served in the English Airforce as a member of het womencorps (WAAF) and it was her job to return empty bombthrowers en transportationplanes to different airports in England. After Frank died she remarried Sandy Robinson. In 1977 she visited the grave of Frank.

Buried: Protestante Begraafplaats in Denekamp.

Awarded with the ‘Distinguished Flying Cross’, the War Medal, the 1939-1945 Star and the Europe Star.


Hann, Frank Hugh (1846–1921)

revised by Libby Connors and Peter Gifford

This article was published in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, (MUP), 1972

This is a shared entry with William Hann

William Hann (1837-1889), and Frank Hugh Hann (1846-1921), explorers and pastoralists, were the sons of Joseph Hann and his wife Elizabeth, née Sharpe. The family migrated from Wiltshire in 1851 to the Westernport district in Victoria. In 1862 Joseph Hann was attracted to the newly-opened upper Burdekin district in Queensland where in partnership with Richard Daintree and some Melbourne investors he took up Bluff Downs, Maryvale and Lolworth stations. After Joseph was drowned in the great Burdekin flood of January 1864, his sons faced resistance from Aboriginal traditional landowners, and struggled with speargrass, dingoes and falling wool prices and in 1870 William had to overland their last 19,000 sheep to Victoria Lolworth and Bluff Downs were surrendered and he ran cattle at Maryvale.

In 1872 William was given charge of a well-organized official party to explore the interior of the Cape York Peninsula. The country was difficult and Hann was often irked by assistants whose bushcraft was less competent than his. Dense scrub prevented him from reaching his goal on the Endeavour River but the party located some fair pastoral country and named the Tate, Daintree and Palmer Rivers. On the latter he reported traces of gold which led to James Mulligan's prospecting party and a dramatic gold rush. The new fields soon provided Hann with a market for his cattle and he prospered. In 1886 after a trip overseas he introduced axis deer from Ceylon to the Maryvale district. He was also a benefactor of St James's Cathedral, Townsville, and a member of the Dalrymple Divisional Board. He died suddenly while swimming near Townsville on 5 April 1889, survived by his wife and two daughters a son had died in infancy. A daring horseman and whip and a first-class bushman, Hann was notable among the first generation of North Queenslanders.

Frank Hann, born on 19 October 1846, was managing Lolworth station by 1866 and in 1875, when the cattle industry revived, took up Lawn Hill station in the Gulf country. Refusing to sell in good times, he was overtaken by low prices, poor seasons and the outbreak of redwater fever in the 1890s, and walked off the station in 1896. During his tenure at Lawn Hill, however, he and his manager, Jack Watson, were said to have killed and mutilated numbers of the local Waanyi people. The diarist Emily Caroline Creaghe (later Barnett), who visited neighbouring Carl Creek station in March 1883, recorded the casual aggression that marked European-Aboriginal relations on the Gulf pastoral holdings: ‘Mr Bob Shadforth went up to “Lorne [sic] Hill” … about 40 miles away … Mr Watson has 40 prs of blacks’ ears nailed round the [Lawn Hill homestead] walls collected during raiding parties after the loss of many cattle speared by the blacks’. Some days later Mrs Creaghe described the abduction of an Aboriginal woman: ‘Mr Shadforth put a rope round the gin’s neck & dragged her along on foot, he was riding. This seems to be the usual method ’. Social activities on the station included visits from Jack Watson and the local Native Police officer. Mrs Creaghe’s comments regarding ‘the usual method’ of treating Aboriginal women was borne out by Hann’s own diary on 11 October 1895 when he noted that he had ‘chained up’ a ‘gin’ named Dora at Lawn Hill because she ‘would not do as I wished’.

In 1889 at Lawn Hill, Frank survived despite being shot at almost point-blank range by the Aboriginal bushranger Joe Flick, who was subsequently killed by the police and Hann’s men. Frank helped build his own legend by writing to the newspapers openly admitting that he had been absent when Flick first arrived, because ‘I had been after blacks who had been playing up on my run for two days’. He said he wanted to give his version of events since this tragedy ‘will get widely circulated, and no doubt have wrong constructions put on it … I do not know what the public will think of our action in this matter, nor do we care, as I, for one, know I was doing a public service in securing this desperado, dead or alive’.

Frank Hann’s conduct, not surprisingly, became part of local Aboriginal oral history. Doomadgee Mission was subsequently established in the north-east portion of the lease. Penniless and very miserable he overlanded to Western Australia with 6 Aboriginal workers and 67 horses in 1896. He searched in vain for suitable country in the Nullagine district and in 1897 decided to return to Queensland but was diverted to a short-lived gold rush at Mount Broome in the West Kimberley district. In the winter of 1898 he penetrated the Leopold Ranges, till then a barrier to expansion, named the Charnley and Isdell Rivers and located some fine areas of pastoral country. This feat of bushmanship and endurance was remarkable for Hann was over 50 and suffering from the after-effects of a broken thigh and the area he traversed was one of the most difficult in Australia and peopled by unwelcoming Aboriginal landowners. He took up over 1000 square miles (2590 km²) of the new country but had no funds to buy stock and it was pioneered by established Kimberley families. Hann lived in Perth for four years and then turned to prospecting. Authorized by the Western Australian government to explore the inland desert, he opened a track from Laverton to the Warburton Ranges on the South Australian border in 1903 and investigated a rumour of gold at Queen Victoria Springs in 1907.

While exploring near Mount Morgans in 1909, Hann told a Perth newspaper by letter that he and members of his party had been ambushed and almost fatally speared by four ‘wild’ Aboriginal men, including one wearing a red band. Hann said that: ‘Had I shot the black with the red band I would have cut his head off and sent the skull to Mr F. Brockman, of Perth, who asked me to send him one, as a friend in London wanted one. I was very sorry that I could not send him the four, but later on I got him a splendid one’ (Western Mail, 10 April 1909, p. 45). The incident brought criticism of Hann in both the serious and the sensational press, which dubbed him ‘Head Hunter Hann’ following investigations by the police and the chief protector of Aborigines, the Mines Department withdrew all assistance to him, effectively ending his exploring career.

An accident put him on crutches in 1918 and he retired to Cottesloe, Perth, where he died unmarried on 23 August 1921. In his last years he had corresponded with Daisy Bates on appealing for more government attention to Aboriginal welfare. Each of his diaries in the Battye Library, Perth, is prefaced by the motto, 'Do not yield to despair'.


Frank

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Frank, member of a Germanic-speaking people who invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. Dominating present-day northern France, Belgium, and western Germany, the Franks established the most powerful Christian kingdom of early medieval western Europe. The name France (Francia) is derived from their name.

The Franks emerged into recorded history in the 3rd century ce as a Germanic tribe living on the east bank of the lower Rhine River. Linguistically, they belonged to the Rhine-Weser group of Germanic speakers. At this time they were divided into three groups: the Salians, the Ripuarians, and the Chatti, or Hessians. These branches were related to each other by language and custom, but politically they were independent tribes. In the mid-3rd century the Franks tried unsuccessfully to expand westward across the Rhine into Roman-held Gaul. In the mid-4th century the Franks again attempted to invade Gaul, and in 358 Rome was compelled to abandon the area between the Meuse and Scheldt rivers (now in Belgium) to the Salian Franks. During the course of these drawn-out struggles the Franks were gradually influenced by Roman civilization. Some Frankish leaders became Roman allies (foederati) in the defense of the Roman frontier, and many Franks served as auxiliary soldiers in the Roman army.

The Vandals launched a massive invasion of Gaul in 406, and in the ensuing decades the Franks took advantage of the overstrained Roman defenses. They solidified their hold on what is now Belgium, took permanent control of the lands immediately west of the middle Rhine River, and edged into what is now northeastern France. The firm establishment of the Franks in northeastern Gaul by the year 480 meant that both the former Roman province of Germania and part of the two former Belgic provinces were lost to Roman rule. The small Gallo-Roman population there became submerged among the German immigrants, and Latin ceased to be the language of everyday speech. The extreme limit of Frankish settlement at this time is marked by the linguistic frontier that still divides the Romance-speaking peoples of France and southern Belgium from the Germanic-speaking peoples of northern Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany.

In 481/482 Clovis I succeeded his father, Childeric, as the ruler of the Salian Franks of Tournai. In the following years Clovis compelled the other Salian and Ripuarian tribes to submit to his authority. He then took advantage of the disintegration of the Roman Empire and led the united Franks in a series of campaigns that brought all of northern Gaul under his rule by 494. He stemmed the Alemannic migrations into Gaul from east of the Rhine, and in 507 he drove southward, subduing the Visigoths who had established themselves in southern Gaul. A unified Frankish kingdom in northern Gaul was thus established and secured. Clovis converted to Catholicism, and the mass adoption of orthodox Christianity by the Franks further served to unite them into one people. It also won them the support of the orthodox clergy and the remaining Gallo-Roman elements in Gaul, since most other Germanic tribes had adopted Arianism.

Clovis belonged to the Merovingian dynasty, so named for his grandfather Merovech. Under Clovis’s successors, the Merovingians were able to extend Frankish power east of the Rhine. The Merovingian dynasty ruled the Frankish territories until they were displaced by the Carolingian family in the 8th century. The Carolingian Charlemagne (Charles the Great, reigned 768–814) restored the western Roman Empire in cooperation with the papacy and spread Christianity into central and northern Germany. His empire disintegrated by the mid-9th century.

In succeeding centuries the people of the west Frankish kingdom (France) continued to call themselves Franks, although the Frankish element merged with the older population. In Germany the name survived as Franconia (Franken), a duchy extending from the Rhineland east along the Main River.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.


LONG AND FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

Long initially supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt, but felt threatened by him. Roosevelt felt that Long was dangerous and attempted to undo his power, going so far as to order investigations into Long by the IRS and the FBI.

Roosevelt incorporated some of Long’s Share Our Wealth initiatives into his New Deal to ensure Long’s efforts did not undo it – and to undercut Long’s popular support as he began to move towards a presidential bid.

In 1935, Long wrote a speculative book called My First Days In The White House, which gave a fictional account of how Long expected his first 100 days as president to unfold.


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The Beginning of a Crime Spree

Abagnale was a master check forger and was apparently the first to exploit the routing of checks via the numbers on the code line. However, he had difficulties at the beginning because the practice of writing bad checks and overdrawing his account only happened for so long before banks demanded payment.

As a result, it was necessary to use innovative methods of conning people out of money. On one occasion, he took a batch of bank deposit slips, prefilled his account number and placed them back in the stack. The reason? Abagnale noticed that most people left the account number section blank, but the banks always went by the section if it was filled. The next morning, he woke up to find $42,000 in his account.

Abagnale soon realized that he would have more success with his bad checks if he could showcase an air of authority. He knew that pilots were well-respected individuals, so he used his cunning to acquire a uniform. It was here that his career as a con artist quite literally ‘took off.&rsquo


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