Everything you wanted to know about Nevada, history, economy people and more - History

Everything you wanted to know about Nevada, history, economy people and more - History

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Basic Information

Postal Abreviation: MT
Natives: Nevadan

Estimated pop. 2018: 3,034,392
Legal Driving Age: 18
(15 w/Driver's Ed.)
Age of Majority: 18
Median Age: 39.8

State Song: “Nevada”
Lyrics: Charles C. Cohan
Music: Joseph E. Howard

Median Household Income:$55,434

Capital..... Helena
Entered Union..... Nov. 8, 1889 (41st)

Present Constitution Adopted: 1972

Nickname: Big Sky Country
Treasure State

“Oro y plata” (Gold and silver)

Origin of Name:
A Latinized Spanish word, meaning– place of mountains.

USS Nevada

Railroad Stations

Nevada Economy

AGRICULTURE: cattle, hay, milk,

MINING: barite, copper, gold, gypsum,
lithium, mercury, petroleum, silver.

MANUFACTURING: Electronics, food
processing, instruments, machinery,
metal products, printed materials,
stone products.

Nevada Geography

Total Area: 110,567 sq. miles
Land area: 109,806 sq. miles
Water Area: 761 sq. miles
Geographic Center: Lander
26 mi. SE of Austin
Highest Point: Boundary Peak
(13,140 ft.)
Lowest Point: Colorado River
(479 ft.)
Highest Recorded Temp.: 122˚ F (6/23/1954)
Lowest Recorded Temp.: –50˚ F (1/8/1937)

Nevada is bordered by mountains on all sides. The Sierra Nevada's are the eastern boundary of the state, while the Wasatch Mountains are on the east. In addition, there are a number of parallel mountains that cross the state, forming a great basin, nearly 4,000 feet above sea level. The Colorado River crosses the state. Nevada is dammed by the Hoover Dam.


Las Vegas,644,844
Henderson , 257,729
Reno, 225,221
Paradise, 225,167
North Las Vegas, 216,961
Sunrise Manor 189,372
Spring Valley, 178,395
Enterprise 108,481
Sparks, 90,264
Carson City , 55,274

Nevada History

1851 Mormon Station is established as a trading post for California bound
1859 The Comstock Lode of silver is discovered.
1861 Nevada is made a territory.
1864 It is admitted to the Union as the 36th state.
1905 Las Vegas is founded as a railroad stop.
1931 Gambling was made legal throughout Nevada.
1936 The Boulder Dam was built.
1946 Bugsy Siegel opened the Flamingo Hotel beginning the famous Las Vegas

Famous People

Andre Agassi
Henry Comstock
William Lear
Thelma “Pat” Nixon
James W. Nye

Nevada National Sites

1) Death Valley National Park-In this below-sea-level basin, steady drought and record summer heat make Death Valley a land of extremes.

2)Great Basin National Park - In the shadow of 13,063-foot Wheeler Peak, 5,000 year old bristlecone pine trees grow on rocky glacial moraines

3)Lake Mead National Recreation Area- Lake Mead NRA offers year-round recreational opportunities for boating, fishing, hiking, photography, picnicking and sightseeing.

Las Vegas

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Las Vegas, city, seat (1909) of Clark county, southeastern Nevada, U.S. The only major city in the American West to have been founded in the 20th century, Las Vegas grew from a tiny, desert-bound railroad service centre at the outset of the 20th century to the country’s fastest-growing metropolis at century’s end. This transformation—made possible by a combination of shrewd entrepreneurship, access to water, an extensive transportation network, and permissive state laws—has created the city now often known simply as “Vegas,” a place of vast casinos, elaborate hotels, and spectacular entertainment venues that attracts masses of visitors from throughout the world.

Las Vegas is Nevada’s economic centre and largest city. Its metropolitan area, with more than twice the number of people outside the city limits as within them, contains roughly three-fourths of the state’s population. Area 83 square miles (215 square km). Pop. (2000) 478,434 Las Vegas–Paradise Metro Area, 1,375,765 (2010) 583,756 Las Vegas–Paradise Metro Area, 1,951,269.

Everything you wanted to know about Nevada, history, economy people and more - History

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Mesquite, Nevada

Percentage of residents living in poverty in 2019: 8.4%
(6.7% for White Non-Hispanic residents, 13.4% for Black residents, 13.7% for Hispanic or Latino residents, 76.7% for Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander residents, 18.3% for other race residents, 20.5% for two or more races residents)

    • 13,137 68.6% White alone
    • 4,387 22.9% Hispanic
    • 556 2.9% Asian alone
    • 249 1.3% Two or more races
    • 215 1.1% Black alone
    • 146 0.8% American Indian alone
    • 46 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other
      Pacific Islander alone
    • 47 0.2% Other race alone

    According to our research of Nevada and other state lists, there were 37 registered sex offenders living in Mesquite, Nevada as of June 18, 2021.
    The ratio of all residents to sex offenders in Mesquite is 477 to 1.
    The ratio of registered sex offenders to all residents in this city is lower than the state average.

    The City-Data.com crime index weighs serious crimes and violent crimes more heavily. Higher means more crime, U.S. average is 270.6. It adjusts for the number of visitors and daily workers commuting into cities.

    Recent articles from our blog. Our writers, many of them Ph.D. graduates or candidates, create easy-to-read articles on a wide variety of topics.

    Latest news from Mesquite, NV collected exclusively by city-data.com from local newspapers, TV, and radio stations

    Ancestries: English (11.3%), American (9.9%), German (9.4%), Irish (5.2%), Italian (2.9%), Danish (2.6%).

    Current Local Time: PST time zone

    Incorporated on 05/1984

    Land area: 15.3 square miles.

    Population density: 1,288 people per square mile (low).

    2,205 residents are foreign born (7.8% Latin America).

    Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units with mortgages in 2019: $1,702 (0.6%)
    Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units with no mortgage in 2019: $1,815 (0.6%)

    Nearest city with pop. 50,000+: Sunrise Manor, NV (69.5 miles , pop. 156,120).

    Nearest city with pop. 200,000+: Las Vegas, NV (76.1 miles , pop. 478,434).

    Nearest city with pop. 1,000,000+: Phoenix, AZ (253.3 miles , pop. 1,321,045).

    Latitude: 36.80 N, Longitude: 114.08 W

    Daytime population change due to commuting: +1,720 (+9.0%)
    Workers who live and work in this city: 4,267 (72.0%)

    Mesquite tourist attractions:

    Unemployment in November 2020:

    • Arts, entertainment, recreation (27.2%)
    • Accommodation & food services (23.1%)
    • Construction (7.9%)
    • Educational services (5.3%)
    • Administrative & support & waste management services (3.9%)
    • Food & beverage stores (2.8%)
    • Professional, scientific, technical services (2.8%)
    • Arts, entertainment, recreation (26.8%)
    • Accommodation & food services (18.9%)
    • Construction (12.8%)
    • Administrative & support & waste management services (5.6%)
    • Educational services (3.6%)
    • Professional, scientific, technical services (2.9%)
    • Public administration (2.8%)
    • Accommodation & food services (28.9%)
    • Arts, entertainment, recreation (27.8%)
    • Educational services (7.5%)
    • Food & beverage stores (4.4%)
    • Finance & insurance (3.9%)
    • Health care (3.0%)
    • Social assistance (2.7%)
    • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (13.7%)
    • Supervisors and other personal care and service workers, except child care workers (6.9%)
    • Other food preparation and serving workers, including supervisors (5.4%)
    • Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (5.2%)
    • Cashiers (4.7%)
    • Waiters and waitresses (4.5%)
    • Other sales and related occupations, including supervisors (4.3%)
    • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (14.5%)
    • Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (6.5%)
    • Supervisors and other personal care and service workers, except child care workers (6.5%)
    • Other food preparation and serving workers, including supervisors (5.4%)
    • Cooks and food preparation workers (4.3%)
    • Other protective service workers, including supervisors (3.8%)
    • Other sales and related occupations, including supervisors (3.8%)
    • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (12.5%)
    • Cashiers (8.5%)
    • Waiters and waitresses (8.0%)
    • Supervisors and other personal care and service workers, except child care workers (7.5%)
    • Other food preparation and serving workers, including supervisors (5.4%)
    • Information and record clerks, except customer service representatives (5.3%)
    • Other sales and related occupations, including supervisors (4.9%)

    Average climate in Mesquite, Nevada

    Based on data reported by over 4,000 weather stations

    Air Quality Index (AQI) level in 2016 was 48.3. This is significantly better than average.

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) [ppb] level in 2007 was 5.93. This is about average. Closest monitor was 1.2 miles away from the city center.

    Ozone [ppb] level in 2016 was 30.3. This is about average. Closest monitor was 1.2 miles away from the city center.

    Particulate Matter (PM10) [µg/m 3 ] level in 2009 was 20.0. This is about average. Closest monitor was 1.2 miles away from the city center.

    Earthquake activity:

    Mesquite-area historical earthquake activity is significantly above Nevada state average. It is 4703% greater than the overall U.S. average.

    On 6/28/1992 at 11:57:34, a magnitude 7.6 (6.2 MB, 7.6 MS, 7.3 MW, Depth: 0.7 mi, Class: Major, Intensity: VIII - XII) earthquake occurred 227.7 miles away from the city center, causing 3 deaths (1 shaking deaths, 2 other deaths) and 400 injuries, causing $100,000,000 total damage and $40,000,000 insured losses
    On 10/16/1999 at 09:46:44, a magnitude 7.4 (6.3 MB, 7.4 MS, 7.2 MW, 7.3 ML) earthquake occurred 206.2 miles away from the city center
    On 7/21/1952 at 11:52:14, a magnitude 7.7 (7.7 UK) earthquake occurred 302.4 miles away from the city center, causing $50,000,000 total damage
    On 10/3/1915 at 06:52:48, a magnitude 7.6 (7.6 UK) earthquake occurred 315.4 miles away from Mesquite center
    On 12/21/1932 at 06:10:09, a magnitude 7.2 (7.2 UK) earthquake occurred 248.9 miles away from Mesquite center
    On 5/19/1940 at 04:36:40, a magnitude 7.2 (7.2 UK) earthquake occurred 264.0 miles away from the city center, causing $33,000,000 total damage
    Magnitude types: body-wave magnitude (MB), local magnitude (ML), surface-wave magnitude (MS), moment magnitude (MW)

    Natural disasters:

    The number of natural disasters in Clark County (12) is smaller than the US average (15).
    Major Disasters (Presidential) Declared: 4
    Emergencies Declared: 3

    Causes of natural disasters: Fires: 4, Floods: 3, Heavy Rains: 2, Snows: 2, Storms: 2, Flash Flood: 1, Hurricane: 1, Other: 1 (Note: some incidents may be assigned to more than one category).


    Hospitals and medical centers in Mesquite:

    • MESA VIEW REGIONAL HOSPITAL (Voluntary non-profit - Private, 1299 BERTHA HOWE AVENUE)

    Airports and heliports located in Mesquite:

      (Runways: 2, Itinerant Ops: 12,750, Local Ops: 3,600, Military Ops: 100)

    Colleges/universities with over 2000 students nearest to Mesquite:

    • Dixie State University (about 36 miles Saint George, UT Full-time enrollment: 6,485)
    • Nevada State College (about 74 miles Henderson, NV FT enrollment: 2,346)
    • University of Nevada-Las Vegas (about 77 miles Las Vegas, NV FT enrollment: 21,153)
    • College of Southern Nevada (about 79 miles Las Vegas, NV FT enrollment: 18,996)
    • Southern Utah University (about 83 miles Cedar City, UT FT enrollment: 6,522)
    • Mohave Community College (about 106 miles Kingman, AZ FT enrollment: 3,309)
    • Northern Arizona University (about 177 miles Flagstaff, AZ FT enrollment: 22,494)

    Public high school in Mesquite:

    Public elementary/middle schools in Mesquite:

    Points of interest:

    Notable locations in Mesquite: Carmen Plaza (A) , City of Mesquite Animal Shelter (B) , Mesquite City Hall (C) , Mesquite Community Center (D) , Nevada Visitor Center (E) , Police Station and Justice Facility (F) , Mesquite Fire and Rescue Station 1 (G) , Mesquite Fire and Rescue Station 2 (H) , Mesquite Library (I) , Mesquite Fine Arts Center (J) , Mesquite Recreation Center (K) , Virgin Valley Heritage Museum (L) , Mesquite Fire and Rescue Station 3 (M) . Display/hide their locations on the map

    Main business address in Mesquite: INDUSTRIES INTERNATIONAL INC (A) . Display/hide its location on the map

    Streams, rivers, and creeks: Pulsipher Wash (A) , Town Wash (B) , Abbott Wash (C) . Display/hide their locations on the map

    Parks in Mesquite include: Elementary Park (1) , Hafen Lane Park (2) , Jensen Park (3) , Library Park (4) , Marilyn Redd Park (5) , Pioneer Park (6) , Pulsipher Park (7) , Virgin Valley Middle School and High School Park (8) , Virgin Valley School Park (9) . Display/hide their locations on the map

    Tourist attractions: International World of Pets (Museums 450 Hillside Drive) (1) , Precious Treasures (Museums 450 Hillside Drive) (2) , Clark NV County - Libraries- Mesquite (Cultural Attractions- Events- & Facilities 121 West 100 North) (3) , Oasis Family Fun Center (Amusement & Theme Parks 897 West Mesquite Boulevard) (4) . Display/hide their approximate locations on the map

    Hotels: Oasis Resort Casino Golf Spa (897 West Mesquite Boulevard) (1) , Holiday Inn (301 Mesa Blvd) (2) , Trivista Resort (401 Paradise Parkway) (3) , Highland Estates Suites (555 Highland Drive) (4) , Stateline Casino Restaurant & Motel (490 West Mesquite Boulevard) (5) , M V Motel (151 East Mesquite Boulevard) (6) , Desert Palms Motel (92 W Mesquite Blvd) (7) , Mesquite Springs Suites (580 Mesa Boulevard) (8) , REDD Room Steakhouse (897 West Mesquite Boulevard) (9) . Display/hide their approximate locations on the map

    Court: Mesquite NV City - Courts- Municipal Court (500 Hillside Drive) (1) . Display/hide its approximate location on the map

    Clark County has a predicted average indoor radon screening level less than 2 pCi/L (pico curies per liter) - Low Potential

    Drinking water stations with addresses in Mesquite and their reported violations in the past:

    • MCL, Average - Between APR-2010 and JUN-2010, Contaminant: Arsenic. Follow-up actions: St AO (w/o penalty) issued (APR-10-2009), St Compliance achieved (OCT-26-2010)
    • MCL, Average - Between JAN-2010 and MAR-2010, Contaminant: Arsenic. Follow-up actions: St AO (w/o penalty) issued (APR-10-2009), St Compliance achieved (OCT-26-2010)
    • MCL, Average - Between OCT-2009 and DEC-2009, Contaminant: Arsenic. Follow-up actions: St AO (w/o penalty) issued (APR-10-2009), St Compliance achieved (OCT-26-2010)
    • MCL, Average - Between JUL-2009 and SEP-2009, Contaminant: Arsenic. Follow-up actions: St AO (w/o penalty) issued (APR-10-2009), St Compliance achieved (OCT-26-2010)
    • MCL, Average - Between APR-2009 and JUN-2009, Contaminant: Arsenic. Follow-up actions: St AO (w/o penalty) issued (APR-10-2009), St Compliance achieved (OCT-26-2010)
    • MCL, Average - Between JAN-2009 and MAR-2009, Contaminant: Arsenic. Follow-up actions: St Violation/Reminder Notice (APR-10-2009), St AO (w/o penalty) issued (APR-10-2009), St Public Notif requested (APR-10-2009), St Compliance achieved (OCT-26-2010)
    • MCL, Monthly (TCR) - In JUN-2007, Contaminant: Coliform. Follow-up actions: St Public Notif requested (AUG-16-2007), St Compliance achieved (AUG-16-2007), St Violation/Reminder Notice (AUG-16-2007)
    • Follow-up Or Routine LCR Tap M/R - In OCT-01-2007, Contaminant: Lead and Copper Rule. Follow-up actions: St Public Notif requested (MAY-01-2008), St Violation/Reminder Notice (MAY-01-2008), St Compliance achieved (SEP-30-2008)
    • 557 regular monitoring violations

    Drinking water stations with addresses in Mesquite that have no violations reported:

    • RED ROCK RV AND CAMPING PARK (Serves ID, Population served: 75,Primary Water Source Type: Groundwater)
    • Lesbian couples: 0.3% of all households
    • Gay men: 0.3% of all households

    Banks with branches in Mesquite (2011 data):

    • Nevada Bank and Trust Company: Mesquite Branch at 349 Falcon Ridge Parkway 400/104, branch established on 2007/08/01. Info updated 2006/11/03: Bank assets: $93.8 mil, Deposits: $83.1 mil, headquarters in Caliente, NV, positive income, 4 total offices
    • Bank of Nevada: Mesquite Branch at 11 Pioneer Boulevard, branch established on 1996/11/01. Info updated 2009/09/28: Bank assets: $2,877.6 mil, Deposits: $2,377.3 mil, headquarters in Las Vegas, NV, positive income, Commercial Lending Specialization, 13 total offices, Holding Company: Western Alliance Bancorporation
    • Wells Fargo Bank, National Association: Mesquite Branch at 611 W Mesquite Boulevard, branch established on 1990/06/22. Info updated 2011/04/05: Bank assets: $1,161,490.0 mil, Deposits: $905,653.0 mil, headquarters in Sioux Falls, SD, positive income, 6395 total offices, Holding Company: Wells Fargo & Company
    • Bank of America, National Association: Mesquite Branch at 81 West Mesquite Boulevard, branch established on 1967/11/04. Info updated 2009/11/18: Bank assets: $1,451,969.3 mil, Deposits: $1,077,176.8 mil, headquarters in Charlotte, NC, positive income, 5782 total offices, Holding Company: Bank Of America Corporation
    • Nevada State Bank: Falcon Ridge Branch at 1130 West Pioneer Blvd, branch established on 2007/06/25. Info updated 2009/04/21: Bank assets: $4,101.1 mil, Deposits: $3,546.3 mil, headquarters in Las Vegas, NV, positive income, Commercial Lending Specialization, 53 total offices, Holding Company: Zions Bancorporation

    For population 15 years and over in Mesquite:

    • Never married: 18.1%
    • Now married: 60.5%
    • Separated: 1.4%
    • Widowed: 8.7%
    • Divorced: 11.3%

    For population 25 years and over in Mesquite:

    • High school or higher: 88.5%
    • Bachelor's degree or higher: 23.3%
    • Graduate or professional degree: 8.5%
    • Unemployed: 6.6%
    • Mean travel time to work (commute): 14.7 minutes

    Graphs represent county-level data. Detailed 2008 Election Results

    Religion statistics for Mesquite, NV (based on Clark County data)

    Evangelical Protestant150,709349
    Mainline Protestant27,07272
    Black Protestant8,55042

    Food Environment Statistics:

    Health and Nutrition:

    Local government employment and payroll (March 2019)
    Function Full-time employees Monthly full-time payroll Average yearly full-time wage Part-time employees Monthly part-time payroll
    Police Protection - Officers 31$209,064$80,9280
    Firefighters 25$165,136$79,26510$6,246
    Parks and Recreation 17$76,710$54,14835$18,830
    Other Government Administration 16$120,906$90,6809$11,126
    Police - Other 14$70,053$60,0454$3,042
    Financial Administration 7$45,875$78,6430
    Judicial and Legal 7$28,712$49,2218$8,761
    Streets and Highways 7$34,150$58,5432$2,334
    Other and Unallocable 7$34,789$59,6380
    Sewerage 7$31,959$54,7871$973
    Correction 7$43,784$75,0580
    Welfare 4$15,782$47,3465$3,401
    Fire - Other 4$29,581$88,7430
    Totals for Government 153$906,499$71,09874$54,713

    Mesquite government finances - Expenditure in 2018 (per resident):

    Mesquite government finances - Revenue in 2018 (per resident):

    Mesquite government finances - Debt in 2018 (per resident):

    Mesquite government finances - Cash and Securities in 2018 (per resident):

    • Bond Funds - Cash and Securities: $9,666,000 ($490.01)
    • Other Funds - Cash and Securities: $24,132,000 ($1223.36)
    • Sinking Funds - Cash and Securities: $3,296,000 ($167.09)

    5.91% of this county's 2016 resident taxpayers lived in other counties in 2015 ($56,534 average adjusted gross income)

    4.57% of this county's 2015 resident taxpayers moved to other counties in 2016 ($58,018 average adjusted gross income)

    Businesses in Mesquite, NV
    NameCount NameCount
    Ace Hardware1 MasterBrand Cabinets1
    Arby's1 McDonald's2
    AutoZone1 Nike1
    Best Western1 Pizza Hut1
    Big O Tires1 Popeyes1
    Burger King1 Quiznos1
    Dairy Queen1 RadioShack1
    FedEx5 Sears1
    H&R Block1 Sprint Nextel2
    Jack In The Box1 Starbucks2
    KFC1 U-Haul1
    Kroger1 UPS4
    La-Z-Boy1 Walgreens1
    Lane Furniture1 Walmart1
    Browse common businesses in Mesquite, NV

    Strongest AM radio stations in Mesquite:

    • KZNU (1450 AM 10 kW ST. GEORGE, UT Owner: AM RADIO 1450, INC.)
    • KNNZ (940 AM 10 kW CEDAR CITY, UT Owner: MB MEDIA GROUP, INC.)

    Strongest FM radio stations in Mesquite:

    • KONY (99.9 FM ST. GEORGE, UT Owner: FM RADIO 99.9, INC.)

    TV broadcast stations around Mesquite:


    • National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Statistics
    • 41 Number of bridges
    • 335ft / 102m Total length
    • $527,000 Total costs
    • 200,694 Total average daily traffic
    • 29,064 Total average daily truck traffic
    • 205,649 Total future (year 2034) average daily traffic
    • New bridges - historical statistics
    • 1 1930-1939
    • 1 1950-1959
    • 8 1960-1969
    • 7 1970-1979
    • 2 1990-1999
    • 14 2000-2009
    • 8 2010-2018
    Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Aggregated Statistics For Year 2009
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) FHA, FSA/RHS & VA
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    C) Refinancings
    D) Home Improvement Loans
    F) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A B C & D)
    G) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A B C & D)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED62$168,764128$155,775253$160,8496$99,517121$159,43511$111,672
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED3$187,46312$179,02638$170,197013$164,8682$131,500
    APPLICATIONS DENIED26$147,78715$125,863127$193,5206$80,85033$163,1913$49,893
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN13$155,12615$153,46587$180,5254$158,78525$182,1000
    FILES CLOSED FOR INCOMPLETENESS4$236,1982$129,9758$268,60801$100,0000
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2008
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) FHA, FSA/RHS & VA
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    C) Refinancings
    D) Home Improvement Loans
    F) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A B C & D)
    G) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A B C & D)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED33$193,719204$189,766170$174,2078$37,240136$180,93510$120,500
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED1$176,81046$200,06925$194,3153$193,99322$196,0662$88,500
    APPLICATIONS DENIED10$181,93636$255,351115$189,24113$60,68432$189,3599$121,667
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN3$239,06728$210,14856$199,7192$49,50025$212,3962$116,500
    FILES CLOSED FOR INCOMPLETENESS2$244,95007$202,36102$155,5000
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2007
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) FHA, FSA/RHS & VA
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    C) Refinancings
    D) Home Improvement Loans
    F) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A B C & D)
    G) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A B C & D)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED26$197,475319$179,677225$181,60228$101,458197$177,71719$118,000
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED1$170,00061$171,31643$173,0041$62,68030$169,4252$146,620
    APPLICATIONS DENIED6$234,02794$177,470142$203,86412$76,28371$202,95814$96,037
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN1$362,27044$186,40876$194,6464$152,21024$183,2972$146,500
    FILES CLOSED FOR INCOMPLETENESS09$207,66725$208,03605$140,1501$196,000
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2006
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) FHA, FSA/RHS & VA
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    C) Refinancings
    D) Home Improvement Loans
    E) Loans on Dwellings For 5+ Families
    F) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A B C & D)
    G) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A B C & D)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED13$181,795598$162,739280$175,91536$114,6541$4,300,000354$157,94930$130,997
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED1$149,00077$141,74851$187,1574$202,575038$135,6557$96,239
    APPLICATIONS DENIED5$172,134197$147,404133$161,25023$70,037097$150,28717$81,059
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN2$194,380115$156,239119$168,7133$90,503062$136,36011$125,202
    FILES CLOSED FOR INCOMPLETENESS2$160,50017$183,20214$163,521007$141,9560
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2005
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) FHA, FSA/RHS & VA
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    C) Refinancings
    D) Home Improvement Loans
    E) Loans on Dwellings For 5+ Families
    F) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A B C & D)
    G) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A B C & D)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED9$164,803613$156,202312$158,06767$127,7682$1,518,500347$148,61427$101,876
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED2$143,500105$144,27252$140,3866$196,107060$128,2226$91,667
    APPLICATIONS DENIED2$92,000175$138,691126$145,30922$112,539083$122,40128$101,096
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN2$163,000101$158,302124$148,56311$140,358037$139,19911$111,409
    FILES CLOSED FOR INCOMPLETENESS010$193,91722$173,8061$34,58004$186,2431$236,000
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2004
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) FHA, FSA/RHS & VA
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    C) Refinancings
    D) Home Improvement Loans
    E) Loans on Dwellings For 5+ Families
    F) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A B C & D)
    G) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A B C & D)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED21$129,093505$132,572277$124,81014$122,3622$399,500232$129,24631$86,839
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED079$133,46457$140,0841$239,930035$140,8259$80,140
    APPLICATIONS DENIED3$145,66095$127,660137$121,18924$30,427037$134,16220$81,413
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN2$116,87565$127,15288$125,8084$41,6681$3,000,00024$119,8106$115,193
    FILES CLOSED FOR INCOMPLETENESS1$114,00011$140,7388$142,4352$35,00003$145,4030
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2003
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) FHA, FSA/RHS & VA
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    C) Refinancings
    D) Home Improvement Loans
    F) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A B C & D)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED31$127,269301$120,709539$110,48210$40,639208$115,600
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED037$125,39680$108,8232$7,00021$123,345
    APPLICATIONS DENIED3$163,82333$122,583164$109,01311$31,96925$94,583
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN5$130,69032$125,108113$118,920014$124,739
    FILES CLOSED FOR INCOMPLETENESS1$145,4206$131,90716$110,76506$97,738

    Detailed HMDA statistics for the following Tracts: 0056.06 , 0056.07, 0056.08, 0059.01

    Private Mortgage Insurance Companies Aggregated Statistics For Year 2009
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Refinancings
    C) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A & B)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED12$225,9683$179,3706$264,448
    APPLICATIONS DENIED3$209,2871$268,4602$198,860
    FILES CLOSED FOR INCOMPLETENESS2$264,8351$315,0001$191,000
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2008
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Refinancings
    C) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A & B)
    D) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A & B)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED40$210,74411$249,03924$200,9421$158,000
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED18$219,7389$249,1819$224,6920
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2007
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Refinancings
    C) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A & B)
    D) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A & B)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED70$217,87224$221,68241$201,1844$132,250
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED10$192,2666$235,45710$206,3510
    APPLICATIONS DENIED4$206,00002$182,5000
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN8$184,40305$167,6441$153,000
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2006
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Refinancings
    C) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A & B)
    D) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A & B)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED59$179,3053$268,92726$162,3911$165,000
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED12$197,9323$324,8006$158,0630
    APPLICATIONS DENIED9$57,77809$57,7780
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN4$153,0001$335,0303$132,6670
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2005
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Refinancings
    C) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A & B)
    D) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A & B)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED135$148,93315$170,58591$132,6753$120,333
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED12$170,6977$173,1918$164,4081$146,000
    APPLICATIONS DENIED1$199,29001$199,2900
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN6$151,4671$167,0005$168,1600
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2004
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Refinancings
    C) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A & B)
    D) Loans On Manufactured
    Home Dwelling (A & B)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED85$156,39619$147,20537$136,9771$110,000
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED13$161,25715$137,73111$139,4351$96,000
    APPLICATIONS DENIED3$170,23001$158,0000
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN3$129,77702$123,6650
    Aggregated Statistics For Year 2003
    (Based on 3 full and 1 partial tracts)
    A) Conventional
    Home Purchase Loans
    B) Refinancings
    C) Non-occupant Loans on
    < 5 Family Dwellings (A & B)
    NumberAverage ValueNumberAverage ValueNumberAverage Value
    LOANS ORIGINATED77$127,50766$125,66835$119,071
    APPLICATIONS APPROVED, NOT ACCEPTED7$127,63614$165,5504$140,000
    APPLICATIONS WITHDRAWN3$158,7103$187,6332$114,610

    Detailed PMIC statistics for the following Tracts: 0056.06 , 0056.07, 0056.08, 0059.01


    Beginnings as federal company town Edit

    The land upon which Boulder City was founded was a harsh, desert environment. Its sole reason for existence was the need to house workers contracted to build the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River (known commonly as Boulder Dam from 1933 to 1947, when it was officially renamed Hoover Dam by a joint resolution of Congress). Men hoping for work on the dam project had begun settling along the river in tents soon after the precise site for the dam had been chosen by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1930. Their ramshackle edifices were collectively known as "Ragtown". [9] [10]

    Boulder City was originally built in 1931 by the Bureau of Reclamation and Six Companies, Inc. as housing for workers who were building the Hoover Dam.

    The sheer scale of the dam and duration of the project required the Bureau of Reclamation to consider the construction of a semi-permanent town rather than a temporary arrangement. [11] Boulder City was exceptionally rare as an example of a town fully planned under government supervision. This is unlike 19th century privately funded company town examples found in the United Kingdom, such as Port Sunlight, or in the United States, such as Pullman, Chicago.

    Early years: 1930–1934 Edit

    Boulder City was carefully planned through federal supervision as a model community, with Dutch-born urban architect Saco Rienk de Boer contracted to plan it. DeBoer had been a planner for Denver, Colorado, and was to design many towns and suburbs around the Rocky Mountain region. Because the Hoover Dam project itself represented a focus for optimism for a country suffering from the effects of the Great Depression, the town itself was to be an additional manifestation of this optimism. There was to be an emphasis on a clean-living environment for dam workers. The plan submitted by DeBoer in 1930 was formal and symmetrical with a park and the Bureau of Reclamation building at the termination of the two main axes. [12] The plan was deemed too expensive to carry out in its original form and was modified to allow for more regular block sizes. Nevertheless, its allowance for public space and copious amounts of landscaping earned it the moniker "Nevada's Garden City". [13] The provision of green landscape was another expression of the Bureau of Reclamation's "mission to reclaim and 'green' the American West." [14]

    The town was designed to house approximately 5,000 workers. The status of the workers on the Hoover Dam was reflected in their house sizes and locations. The most important employees had their residences on top of the hill nearer the apex. Managers were housed further down the hill, and dwellings for manual laborers were located furthest away from the public buildings and parks. [15] The most radically modified portions of DeBoer's plan were in these lower-class residential blocks, where open space and parks were largely eliminated.

    Commercial development was restricted and severely regulated under Sims Ely, the city manager. There were limits to the number of different types of stores allowed in the city, and all who wished to begin a business were screened for character and financial viability. [16] On the other hand, there was no provision for schools in the burgeoning city, probably because the Bureau of Reclamation expected that single male workers would populate the town. [17] The town made do with makeshift schoolrooms until the city won the right for state-funded schools to be established on the federal reservation upon which Boulder City was situated. No hospitals were provided in the city either. Injured workers had to travel 33 miles (53 km) to Las Vegas Hospital, and when a hospital was established in the city, females were not admitted for a number of years. [18]

    Similarity to earlier company towns Edit

    Like early model company town Port Sunlight, the workers of Boulder City were under strict monitoring: alcohol was prohibited in the town until 1969 and gambling has been prohibited since the city's outset. [20] The city was founded during the Prohibition era. Boulder Theatre, established in 1931, meant that workers were not obliged to travel to Las Vegas for amusements. Such measures were common for company towns dating back to the 19th century, since sober workers surrounded by their own gardens and provided with appropriate entertainment would be more productive during their working days.

    In the case of Boulder City, the prohibition of alcohol and gambling was at least partly due to the proximity of Las Vegas, which had a notoriously rowdy vice district. [21] Visitors to Boulder City were admitted by permit, and by 1932, there was a gatehouse through which all visitors had to pass. [22]

    Trendsetter for decentralization Edit

    While the establishment of Boulder City occurred while Las Vegas was modest in size with approximately 5,000 inhabitants, it was effectively the beginning of the fragmentation of cities in the region of Clark County. This move to disperse to multiple centers predated the decentralization movement of the 1970s. The nearby city of Henderson, founded in 1943 and based around the magnesium industry, was another early example of decentralization before Clark County had a significant population: ". the region began to decentralize and regroup as a multi-centered area early in its history." [23] The independent governments of Henderson, North Las Vegas, Las Vegas, and Boulder City have perpetuated the fragmented nature of the region, giving each city its individual character, as well as generally stymieing the outward growth of these cities. [24]

    1960s onwards Edit

    The government did not relinquish control of Boulder City until 1959, when the town was incorporated. Boulder City's incorporation ceremony took place on January 4, 1960. The city council selected pharmacist Robert N. Broadbent as the town's first mayor.

    The city charter, approved by the residents, prohibited gambling within the city limits. This provision still exists, making Boulder City one of only two locations in Nevada where gambling is illegal (the other is the town of Panaca). [25] The Hoover Dam Lodge hotel-casino permits gambling and has a Boulder City mailing address, but it is located on a parcel of private land within the boundaries of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area and thus not within city limits.

    Another casino on the other end of town is the Railroad Pass Hotel and Casino, which has a Boulder City telephone prefix, but is within the boundary of the neighboring city of Henderson.

    Alcohol sales were first permitted in 1969. [26]

    On August 9, 2018, the Boulder City Bypass opened to the public as part of the Interstate 11 project. [27] The bypass is still within Boulder City's city limit, but bypasses the populated area. Initially, businesses and the populace were concerned that the bypass would have a negative effect on the local economy, though it seems that the opposite was true for some businesses. [28]

    Accolades Edit

    In 2009, Money magazine ranked Boulder City sixth in its annual list of the top 25 places to retire in the United States, which was based on affordable housing, medical care, tax rates and arts and leisure. [29]

    According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 208.6 square miles (540.2 km 2 ), of which 0.039 square miles (0.1 km 2 ), or 0.02%, is water. [30] This ranks Boulder City as the largest city in Nevada by land area and 35th in the country, but gives it a low density rate of only about 72 people per square mile. [31]

    Boulder City maintains strict controls on growth, limited to 120 single- or multi-family residential building permits for new construction per year. Hotels are also restricted to no more than 35 rooms. These restrictions are defined in the city code of Boulder City. [32]

    Climate Edit

    According to the Köppen climate classification system, Boulder City has a hot desert climate (Köppen type BWh)

    Climate data for Boulder City
    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
    Record high °F (°C) 75
    Average high °F (°C) 54.5
    Average low °F (°C) 38.6
    Record low °F (°C) 11
    Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.66
    Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.6
    Average precipitation days 3 4 4 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 3 30
    Source: WRCC [33]
    Historical population
    Census Pop.
    19604,059 4.0%
    19705,223 28.7%
    19809,590 83.6%
    199012,567 31.0%
    200014,966 19.1%
    201015,023 0.4%
    2019 (est.)16,207 [5] 7.9%
    U.S. Decennial Census [34]

    As of the census [35] of 2000, there were 14,966 people, 6,385 households, and 4,277 families residing in the city. The population density was 73.9 people per square mile (28.5/km 2 ). There were 6,979 housing units at an average density of 34.4 per square mile (13.3/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 94.54% White, 0.71% African American, 0.72% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 1.27% from other races, and 1.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.34% of the population.

    There were 6,385 households, out of which 23.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 7.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. Of all households 27.6% were made up of individuals, and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.79.

    In the city, the population was spread out, with 20.4% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 21.3% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, and 23.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males.

    The median income for a household in the city was $50,523, and the median income for a family was $60,641. Males had a median income of $42,041 versus $30,385 for females. The per capita income for the city was $29,770. About 4.7% of families and 6.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over.

    Hoover Dam in marketing Edit

    The proximity of Hoover Dam to Boulder City is reflected in many of the businesses in the historic Downtown district, which is home to the Boulder Dam Hotel, home of the Boulder City/Hoover Dam Museum. (The hotel is named after the dam's former name.)

    Making a pun on the word "damn" is also popular. The Boulder City Chamber of Commerce has used the slogan "Best City By A Dam Site" in promotions, and the city hosts an annual festival of short subject films dubbed "The Dam Short Film Festival". Boulder City also hosts a number of Hoover Dam related events such as "That Dam Guy Stole My Dam Car" car race and "Get Off My Dam Lawn" gardening festival.

    Points of interest Edit

    In 1975, a team from Boulder City won the Almost Anything Goes! national championship, broadcast on ABC television. The following year, they won a "Supergames" playoff against the 1976 champions from Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and a celebrity all-star team. However, the show was cancelled soon after.

    Boulder City has two municipal golf courses (Boulder City Municipal Golf Course and Boulder Creek Golf Course), one private golf course, a city pool, racquetball complex, lit tennis courts, athletic fields, BMX bicycle track, ample mountain hiking trails, and is only a few miles away from Lake Mead. Nevada's first airport, Boulder City Municipal Airport, is still in operation today, accommodating private planes, skydiving trips, and scenic aerial tours of Hoover Dam and the Grand Canyon.

    The town of Boulder City is a special charter municipality which operates under the council-manager form of government. The city council comprises five members, including the mayor, who acts as presiding officer for city council meetings. The city manager is appointed by the city council and executes the policies and directives of the city council. Boulder City is one of two locations within the State of Nevada where military veterans and their spouses can be interred. The Southern Nevada Veterans Memorial Cemetery is located in Boulder City, Clark County, Nevada. The cemetery was established in 1990. The State of Nevada has more than 300,000 veterans and is among the fastest growing region in the Western United States of people age 65 or older with the demographic of military veterans. [4] the 79-acre (32 ha) cemetery is approximately 30 miles southeast of Las Vegas, Nevada.

    Boulder City's four public schools fall under the jurisdiction of the Clark County School District. Boulder City High School serves grades nine through twelve and has an average enrollment of 700–750 students. It was one of fourteen Clark County schools to become a five-star school in 2012. [36] Elton & Madeline Garrett Junior High School serves grades six through eight. Martha P. King Elementary School serves grades three through five. Andrew J. Mitchell Elementary School serves grades K through two. Boulder City is also home of one non-profit private religious elementary school, Grace Christian Academy, [37] which offers a Christian education for grades kindergarten through five. The school is part of Grace Community Church.

    Boulder City also houses a small satellite campus of the College of Southern Nevada.

    Boulder City has a public library, the Boulder City Library. [38] The Boulder City Library featured in the plot of the Oscar-winning 2016 film La La Land as the landmark across the street from the childhood home of the film's fictional heroine, aspiring actress Mia Dolan. However, La La Land's scenes of Mia's neighborhood in Boulder City (including the library) were actually filmed in Santa Clarita, CA. [39]

    Until it ceased publication in 2009, the Boulder City News was the local newspaper. Upon cessation of the Boulder City News, Stephens Media began a new local newspaper called the Boulder City Review. [40]

    The northern Eldorado Valley contains Boulder City's "Eldorado Energy Zone" which is home to the 480 MW El Dorado natural gas power plant, as well as several other projects. In 2019, the city announced plans to lease up to 1,100 acres in Black Hills South as a utility-scale solar facility. The city hopes to generate $1.65 million annually from the lease. [41]

    The Great Gatsby Era: The Roaring 20s

    At the time when the novel takes place, the U.S. was in the middle of a tremendous economic boom and a soaring stock market that seemed to be on a permanent upward swing. At the same time, many of the social restrictions of the early 20th century were being rejected, and progressive movements of all kinds were flourishing.

    Prohibition, Bootlegging, and the Speakeasy

    Socially progressive activists in both the Democratic and Republican parties united to pressure the government to ban alcohol, which was blamed for all kinds of other social ills like gambling and drug abuse.

    In 1920, the U.S. passed the 18th Amendment, outlawing the production and sale of alcohol. Of course, this did little to actually stem the desire for alcoholic beverages, so a vast underground criminal empire was born to supply this demand.

    The production and distribution of alcohol became the province of bootleggers - the original organized crime syndicates. Selling alcohol was accomplished in many ways, including through “speakeasies” - basically, underground social clubs.

    Since speakeasies were already side-stepping the law, they also became places where people of different races and genders could mix and mingle in a way they hadn’t previously while enjoying new music like jazz. This marked a shift both in how black culture was understood and appreciated by the rest of the country and in how women’s rights were progressing, as we’ll discuss in the next sections.

    If you understand the history of Prohibition, you'll make better sense of some plot and character details in The Great Gatsby:

    • Gatsby makes his fortune through bootlegging and other criminal activities.
    • Gatsby's business partner Meyer Wolfshiem is a gangster who is affiliated with organized crime and is based on the real-life crime boss Arnold Rothstein, who was indeed responsible for fixing the World Series in 1919.
    • Any time someone is drinking alcohol in the novel, they are doing something illegal, and are clearly in the know about how to get this banned substance.
    • Gatsby’s parties have a speakeasy feel in that people from different backgrounds and genders freely mix and mingle.
    • One of the rumors about Gatsby is that he is involved in a bootlegging pipeline of alcohol from Canada - this is a reference to a real-life scandal about one of the places where illegal alcohol was coming from!

    Police emptying out confiscated barrels of beer into the sewer.

    Women’s Rights

    The 19th Amendment, passed in 1919, officially gave women the right to vote in the United States. Suffrage had been a huge goal of the women’s movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, so this victory caused women to continue to push boundaries and fight for more rights during the 1920s.

    The ramifications of this were political, economic, and social. Politically, the women's rights movement next took up the cause of the Equal Rights Amendment, which would guarantee equal legal rights for women. The amendment came close to eventually being ratified in the 1970s, but was defeated by conservatives.

    Economically, there was an increase in working women. This began during WWI as more women began to work to make up for the men fighting abroad, and as more professions opened up to them in the men's absence.

    Societally, divorce became more common. Nevertheless, it was still very much frowned on, and being a housewife and having fewer rights than man was still the norm in the 1920s. Another social development was the new “flapper” style. This term described women who would wear much less restricting clothing and go out drinking and dancing, which at the time was a huge violation of typical social norms.

    If you understand this combination of progress and traditionalism for women's roles, you'll find it on display in The Great Gatsby:

      contemplates leaving Tom but ultimately decides to stay.
      parties and doesn’t seem to be in a hurry to settle down.
      flouts traditional rules by cheating on her husband but is killed by the end of the book, suggesting women are safest when they toe the line.

    Women's suffrage parade in New York City.

    Racial and Religious Minority History

    The post-war boom also had a positive effect on minorities in the U.S.

    One of the effects was that Jewish Americans were at the forefront of promoting such issues as workers rights, civil rights, woman's rights, and other progressive causes. Jews also served in the American military during World War I in very high numbers. At the same time, their prominence gave rise to an anti-Semitic backlash, and the revival of the KKK began with the lynching of a Jewish man in 1915.

    Another post-WWI development was the Harlem Renaissance, a cultural, social, and artistic flowering among African Americans that took place in Harlem, NY, during the 1920s. Artists from that time include W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullen, Louis Armstrong, and Billie Holiday.

    You can see the effects of these historical development several places in the novel:

    • jazz music is a fixture of Gatsby’s parties, and almost every song that Fitzgerald describes is a real life piece of music.
    • Nick's love of Manhattan as a diverse melting pot is illustrated by the appearance in Chapter 4 of a car with wealthy black passengers and a white driver.
      's racist rant in Chapter 1 and his fears that the white race will be "overrun" by minorities is based on the backlash that African American advancement occasioned.
    • The novel includes Nick's anti-Semitic description of a Jewish character - Meyer Wolfshiem.
    • There are modern theories that Jay Gatsby is may be half black and that Daisy may actually be Jewish.

    Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes


    The 1920s saw huge increases in the production and use of automobiles. Almost 1 in 4 people now had a car! This happened because of advances in mass production due to the assembly line, and because of rising incomes due to the economic boom.

    Car ownership increased mobility between cities and outer suburban areas, which enabled the wealthy to work in one place but live in another. Cars also now created a totally new danger, particularly in combination with alcohol consumption.

    If you're aware of the newness and attraction of cars, you'll notice that in The Great Gatsby:

    • The wealthiest characters own cars and use them to commute between Manhattan and Long Island.
    • Cars are clearly used to display wealth and status - even Tom, normally secure in his superiority, wants to brag to George Wilson about the super-fancy Rolls Royce he borrows from Gatsby.
    • Cars are tools of recklessness, danger, and violence - there are several car accidents in the novel, the most notable of which is when Daisy runs Myrtle over and kills her in Chapter 7.

    Death machine, or no, you have to admit that's a pretty cool-looking car.


    Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

    Apache, North American Indians who, under such leaders as Cochise, Mangas Coloradas, Geronimo, and Victorio, figured largely in the history of the Southwest during the latter half of the 19th century. Their name is probably derived from a Spanish transliteration of ápachu, the term for “enemy” in Zuñi.

    Before Spanish colonization, Apache domain extended over what are now (in the United States) east-central and southeastern Arizona, southeastern Colorado, southwestern and eastern New Mexico, and western Texas and (in Mexico) northern Chihuahua and Sonora states. However, the ancestral Apache probably did not reach the Southwest until at least 1100 ce . They apparently migrated to the area from the far north, for the Apachean languages are clearly a subgroup of the Athabaskan language family with the exception of the Navajo, all other Athabaskan-speaking tribes were originally located in what is now western Canada.

    Although the Apache eventually chose to adopt a nomadic way of life that relied heavily on horse transport, semisedentary Plains Apache farmers were living along the Dismal River in what is now Kansas as recently as 1700. When the horse and gun trades converged in the central Plains about 1750, guerrilla-style raiding by previously nomadic groups such as the Comanche greatly increased. The remaining Plains Apache were severely pressured and retreated to the south and west.

    Culturally, the Apache are divided into Eastern Apache, which include the Mescalero, Jicarilla, Chiricahua, Lipan, and Kiowa Apache, and Western Apache, which include the Cibecue, Mimbreño, Coyotero, and Northern and Southern Tonto or Mogollon Apache. With the exception of the Kiowa Apache, who joined the Kiowa tribal circle (adopting Kiowa customs and allegiance), the Apache traditionally functioned without a centralized tribal organization. Instead, the band, an autonomous small group within a given locality, was the primary political unit as well as the primary raiding unit. The strongest headman of a band was recognized as an informal chief, and several bands might be united under one leader. Chieftainship was thus an earned privilege rather than a hereditary one.

    Once the Apache had moved to the Southwest, they developed a flexible subsistence economy that included hunting and gathering wild foods, farming, and obtaining food and other items from Pueblo villages via trade, livestock hunts, and raiding. The proportion of each activity varied greatly from tribe to tribe. The Jicarilla farmed fairly extensively, growing corn (maize) and other vegetables, and also hunted bison extensively. The Lipan of Texas, who were probably originally a band of Jicarilla, had largely given up farming for a more mobile lifestyle. The Mescalero were influenced by the Plains tribes’ corn- and bison-based economies, but their chief food staple was the mescal plant (hence the name Mescalero). The Chiricahua were perhaps the most nomadic and aggressive of the Apache west of the Rio Grande, raiding into northern Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico from their strongholds in the Dragoon Mountains. The Western Apache appear to have been more settled than their Eastern relatives although their economy emphasized farming, they did raid fully sedentary tribes frequently. One of the Western Apache tribes, the Navajo, traded extensively with the Pueblo tribes and was heavily influenced by these firmly agriculturist cultures.

    Although they were among the fiercest groups on the colonial frontiers of Mexico and the United States, and perhaps because of their confidence in their own military prowess, the Apache initially attempted to be friends of the Spanish, Mexicans, and Americans. As early as the 17th century, however, Apache bands were raiding Spanish missions the Spanish failure to protect missionized Pueblo villages from Apache raids during a five-year drought in the late 17th century may have helped to instigate the Pueblo Rebellion of 1680. During the Spanish retaliation immediately following the revolt, many Pueblo individuals took shelter with the Navajo.

    In 1858 a meeting at Apache Pass in the Dragoon Mountains between the Americans and the Chiricahua Apache resulted in a peace that lasted until 1861, when Cochise went on the warpath. This marked the beginning of 25 years of confrontation between U.S. military forces and the native peoples of the Southwest. The causes of the conflict included the Apache disinclination toward reservation life and incursions onto Apache lands that were related to the development of gold, silver, and coal mining operations in the region the latter often took place with the consent of corrupt Office of Indian Affairs staff.

    Despite their adept use of swift horses and their knowledge of the terrain, the Apache were eventually outmatched by the superior arms of American troops. The Navajo surrendered in 1865 and agreed to settle on a reservation in New Mexico. Other Apache groups ostensibly followed suit in 1871–73, but large numbers of warriors refused to yield their nomadic ways and accept permanent confinement. Thus, intermittent raids continued to be led by such Apache leaders as Geronimo and Victorio, evoking federal action once more.

    The last of the Apache wars ended in 1886 with the surrender of Geronimo and his few remaining followers. The Chiricahua tribe was evacuated from the West and held as prisoners of war successively in Florida, in Alabama, and at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, for a total of 27 years. In 1913 the members of the tribe were given the choice of taking allotments of land in Oklahoma or living in New Mexico on the Mescalero Reservation. Approximately one-third chose the former and two-thirds the latter.

    Apache descendants totaled some 100,000 individuals in the early 21st century.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.

    What Is the Keystone XL Pipeline?

    UPDATE: June 9, 2021: TC Energy announced that it is canceling the controversial Keystone XL tar sands pipeline, putting an end to a fossil fuel project that endangered waterways, communities, and the climate, which President Biden denied a key permit for on his first day in office. “The era of building fossil fuel pipelines without scrutiny of their potential impact on climate change and on local communities is over,” says Anthony Swift, director of NRDC’s Canada project. “Keystone XL was a terrible idea from the start. It’s time to accelerate our transition to the clean energy sources that will power a prosperous future.”

    Jump to Section

    If ever there was an environmental battle exemplifying a game of ping pong, it would be the stop-start story of the Keystone XL pipeline, also known as KXL. From the time it was proposed in 2008, through more than 10 years of dogged citizen protest and various conflicting legislative and executive orders by the federal government, the path for this controversial oil pipeline has never been smooth. Many had hoped that the disastrous project was finally done for in November 2015, when the Obama administration vetoed the pipeline—acknowledging its pervasive threats to climate, ecosystems, drinking water sources, and public health, and advancing a national commitment to decreasing our reliance on dirty energy. But immediately after taking office, President Trump reversed course and signed an executive order to advance Keystone XL (as well as the Dakota Access Pipeline). Since then, President Trump has personally issued the pipeline’s developer its long-sought cross-border permit, and his administration has attempted to grant additional permits for the project—all based on faulty environmental reviews. (NRDC and other groups have already won two lawsuits against the Trump administration over these approvals and reviews and recently sued for a third time.)

    As President-elect Joe Biden prepares to enter the White House, he has signaled that cancelling Keystone XL’s permit will be a top priority. Here’s an overview of the tar sands export pipeline that’s become one of the foremost climate controversies of our time.

    What is Keystone XL?

    The Keystone XL pipeline extension, proposed by energy infrastructure company TC Energy (formerly TransCanada) in 2008, was designed to transport the planet’s dirtiest fossil fuel to market—fast. An expansion of the company’s existing Keystone Pipeline System, which has been operating since 2010 (and is already sending Canadian tar sands crude from Alberta to various processing hubs in the middle of the United States), it would dramatically increase capacity to process the 168 billion barrels of crude oil locked up under Canada’s boreal forest. To be precise, it would transport 830,000 barrels of Alberta tar sands oil per day to refineries on the Gulf Coast of Texas.

    Some 3 million miles of oil and gas pipelines already run through our country. But Keystone XL wouldn’t be your average pipeline, and tar sand oil isn’t your average crude.

    Keystone XL and Tar Sands

    Beneath the wilds of northern Alberta’s boreal forest is a sludgy, sticky deposit called tar sands. These sands contain bitumen, a gooey type of petroleum that can be converted into fuel. It’s no small feat extracting oil from tar sands, and doing so comes with steep environmental and economic costs. Nevertheless, in the mid-2000s, with gas prices on the rise, oil companies ramped up production and sought additional ways to move their product from Canada’s remote tar sands fields to midwestern and Gulf Coast refineries.

    Keystone XL Pipeline Map

    The Keystone XL extension actually comprises two segments. The first, a southern leg, has already been completed and runs between Cushing, Oklahoma, and Port Arthur, Texas. Opponents of this project—now called the Gulf Coast Pipeline—say that TC Energy took advantage of legal loopholes to push the pipeline through, securing a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers permit and dodging the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) more rigorous vetting process, which requires public input. The second segment is the currently contested 1,209-mile northern leg—a shortcut of sorts—that would run from Hardisty, Alberta, through Montana and South Dakota to Steele City, Nebraska.

    Following a rigorous, robust analysis with substantial public engagement, the U.S. State Department, under President Barack Obama, declined to grant the northern leg of the Keystone XL project the permit required to construct, maintain, and operate the pipeline across the U.S.–Canada border. Though President Trump subsequently granted this permit and removed this particular barrier to Keystone XL’s construction, significant legal, regulatory, and economic barriers remain for the pipeline to become operational.

    Keystone XL Pipeline Environmental Impact

    Leaks and the pipeline

    Tar sands oil is thicker, more acidic, and more corrosive than lighter conventional crude, and this ups the likelihood that a pipeline carrying it will leak. Indeed, one study found that between 2007 and 2010, pipelines moving tar sands oil in Midwestern states spilled three times more per mile than the U.S. national average for pipelines carrying conventional crude. Since it first went into operation in 2010, TC Energy’s original Keystone Pipeline System has leaked more than a dozen times one incident in North Dakota sent a 60-foot, 21,000-gallon geyser of tar sands oil spewing into the air. Most recently, on October 31, 2019, the Keystone tar sands pipeline was temporarily shut down after a spill in North Dakota of reportedly more than 378,000 gallons. And the risk that Keystone XL will spill has only been heightened: A study published in early 2020, co-authored by TC Energy’s own scientists, found that the anti-corrosion coating on pipes for the project is defective from being stored outside and exposed to the elements for the last decade.

    U.S. Coast Guard Petty Officer Second Class Lauren Jorgensen

    Complicating matters, leaks can be difficult to detect. And when tar sands oil does spill, it’s more difficult to clean up than conventional crude because it immediately sinks to the bottom of the waterway. People and wildlife coming into contact with tar sands oil are exposed to toxic chemicals, and rivers and wetland environments are at particular risk from a spill. (For evidence, recall the 2010 tar sands oil spill in Kalamazoo, Michigan, a disaster that cost Enbridge more than a billion dollars in cleanup fees and took six years to settle in court.) Keystone XL would cross agriculturally important and environmentally sensitive areas, including hundreds of rivers, streams, aquifers, and water bodies. One is Nebraska’s Ogallala Aquifer, which provides drinking water for millions as well as 30 percent of America’s irrigation water. A spill would be devastating to the farms, ranches, and communities that depend on these crucial ecosystems.

    What is tar sands oil?

    The tar sands industry is just as hard on the cradle of its business. Its mines are a blight on Canada’s boreal, where operations dig up and flatten forests to access the oil below, destroying wildlife habitat and one of the world’s largest carbon sinks. They deplete and pollute freshwater resources, create massive ponds of toxic waste, and threaten the health and livelihood of the First Nations people who live near them. Refining the sticky black gunk produces piles of petroleum coke, a hazardous, coal-like by-product. What’s more, the whole process of getting the oil out and making it usable creates three to four times the carbon pollution of conventional crude extraction and processing. “This isn’t your grandfather’s typical oil,” says Anthony Swift, director of NRDC’s Canada project. “It’s nasty stuff.”

    Keystone XL and climate change

    A fully realized Keystone XL would lead to more mining of that “nasty stuff” by accelerating the pace at which it’s produced and transported. (Indeed, Keystone XL was viewed as a necessary ingredient in the oil industry’s plans to triple tar sands production by 2030.)

    It would also lead to greater greenhouse gas emissions. In 2014, the EPA stated that tar sands oil emits 17 percent more carbon than other types of crude, but ironically, the State Department revised this number upward three years later, stating that the emissions could be “5 percent to 20 percent higher than previously indicated.” That means burdening the planet with an extra 178.3 million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually, the same impact as 38.5 million passenger vehicles or 45.8 coal-fired power plants. Finally, the pipeline would undermine efforts to minimize global warming and prioritize clean energy like wind and solar. Leading climate scientist and former NASA researcher James Hansen has warned that fully exploiting Canada’s tar sands reserves would mean “game over” for our climate. In short, tar sands oil represents no small threat to our environment, and our best stance against it, as the rallying cry goes, is to “keep it in the ground.”

    Keystone XL Pipeline Controversy

    Opposition to Keystone XL centers on the devastating environmental consequences of the project. The pipeline has faced years of sustained protests from environmental activists and organizations Indigenous communities religious leaders and the farmers, ranchers, and business owners along its proposed route. One such protest, a historic act of civil disobedience outside the White House in August 2011, resulted in the arrest of more than 1,200 demonstrators. More than 90 leading scientists and economists have opposed the project, in addition to unions and world leaders such as the Dalai Lama, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, and former president Jimmy Carter (together, these and other Nobel laureates have written letters against the project). In 2014, more than two million comments urging a rejection of the pipeline were submitted to the State Department during a 30-day public comment period.

    In the two years leading up to the November 2014 midterm elections, the fossil fuel industry spent more than $720 million to court allies in Congress. When industry-friendly politicians took charge of both congressional houses in January 2015, their first order of business was to pass a bill to speed up approval of Keystone XL. (That effort failed.)

    “So what if there’s no pipeline . . .Big Oil will find a way.”

    One of the central arguments by pipeline pushers is that tar sands expansion will move forward with or without Keystone XL. This has proved to be untrue. Dealing in tar sands oil is an expensive endeavor. It’s costly both to produce and to ship, particularly by rail, which would be an alternative to Keystone XL. Indeed, moving crude by rail to the Gulf costs twice as much as by pipe. For companies considering whether to invest in a long-lived tar sands project (which could last for 50 years), access to cheap pipeline capacity will play a major role in the decision to move forward or not. Without Keystone XL, the tar sands industry has canceled projects rather than shift to rail, subsequently leaving more of the earth’s dirtiest fuel in the ground where it belongs.

    Keystone Pipeline Economic Facts

    Will the pipeline create jobs?

    The oil industry has lobbied hard to get KXL built by using false claims, political arm-twisting, and big bucks. When TC Energy said the pipeline would create nearly 119,000 jobs, a State Department report instead concluded the project would require fewer than 2,000 two-year construction jobs and that the number of jobs would hover around 35 after construction.

    Will the pipeline lower gas prices?

    Dirty energy lobbyists claimed developing tar sands would protect our national energy security and bring U.S. fuel prices down. But NRDC and its partners found the majority of Keystone XL oil would be sent to markets overseas (aided by a 2015 reversal of a ban on crude oil exports)—and could even lead to higher prices at U.S. pumps.

    President Trump and the Keystone XL Pipeline

    When the Obama administration refused to grant the cross-border permit necessary to build TC Energy’s Keystone XL oil pipeline in November 2015, it struck a blow against polluting powers and acknowledged the consensus on this misguided project from a wide swath of people and organizations. “America is now a global leader when it comes to taking serious action to fight climate change,” President Obama said. “And, frankly, approving this project would have undercut that global leadership.” The Obama-era decision echoed a seven-year State Department review process with EPA input that concluded the pipeline would fail to serve national interests.

    Upon entering office, President Trump—with his pro-polluter cabinet of fossil fuel advocates, billionaires, and bankers—quickly demonstrated that his priorities differed. On his fourth day in office, Trump signed an executive order to allow Keystone XL to move forward. On March 28, 2017, his administration illegally approved a cross-border permit for the pipeline, reversing the Obama administration’s robust National Interest Determination process. When that failed—thanks to a lawsuit brought by NRDC and other groups—President Trump reissued the cross-border permit himself. His administration has also attempted to issue other permits for the project, all based on flawed environmental analyses, prompting two more lawsuits from NRDC and its allies.

    Opposition outside the courts has been swift and strong as well. Farmers, ranchers, tribes, and conservation groups have helped keep the project stalled for the past four years, ensuring it made the long list of President Trump’s failed campaign promises.

    President Biden and the Keystone XL Pipeline

    Even as Trump and TC Energy tried to revive the pipeline, polls showed that a majority of Americans opposed it. The market case, even before the COVID-19 pandemic sent oil prices plummeting, has also deteriorated. Low oil prices and increasing public concern over the climate have led Shell, Exxon, Statoil, and Total to either sell their tar sands assets or write them down. Because of this growing market recognition, major new tar sands projects haven't moved forward with construction for years, despite investments from the government of Alberta, Canada. For example, in 2020, Teck Resources withdrew its ten-year application to build the largest tar sands mine in history—citing growing concern surrounding climate change in global markets.

    In May 2020, while campaigning in the Democratic primary for the presidential ticket, Joe Biden vowed to cancel the Keystone XL cross-border permit should he win the presidency. He is expected to make good on that promise on his first day in office, January 20, 2021.

    This is one exciting and important step toward ending the project but for the Keystone XL pipeline to truly be finished, the Biden administration must revoke other permits, including the Bureau of Land Management’s right-of-way permit—and prepare for the legal battles that will likely follow.

    “President Biden's decision to reject the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline on his first day turns the page on a twelve-year fight over the energy future of our country,” said Swift just before Biden’s inauguration. “It sets the stage for a more prosperous future powered by clean energy.”

    This story was originally published on April 7, 2017 and has been updated with new information and links.

    Essential UFO Reading

    While the lore around Area 51 may be nothing more than imaginative fiction, that won't stop people from gawking just beyond those chain link fences. "At the most basic level, anytime you have something secret or forbidden, it's human nature," says Merlin. "You want to find out what it is."

    What Americans Must Know About Socialism


    Distinguished Fellow in Conservative Thought

    Portrait of Karl Marx (1818-1883), before 1875. Fine Art Images Heritage Images/Newscom

    Key Takeaways

    Socialism is no longer a parlor game for academics but a political alternative taken seriously by millennials.

    “They don’t recognize that much of what they enjoy in life is a result of capitalism and would disappear if socialism were to be implemented."

    This is the reality of socialism — a pseudo-religion grounded in pseudo-science and enforced by political tyranny.

    Is a specter of socialism haunting America, especially among our millennials? There is disquieting evidence of many young Americans’ sympathy for socialism. Exhibit A: 2.052 million people under the age of 30 voted for democratic socialist Bernie Sanders in the 2016 Democratic primaries and caucuses. Exhibit B: Polls find that, not only do a large majority of millennials have a favorable opinion of socialism, a near majority would prefer to live under socialism rather than capitalism. Exhibit C: The no-longer sleeping Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) now boasts 30,000 members, most of them in their twenties and eager to follow the socialist banner.

    We’ve come a long way since the 1988 presidential race when George H. W. Bush buried his Democratic challenger Michael Dukakis by labeling him a “liberal.” Socialism is no longer a parlor game for academics but a political alternative taken seriously by millennials who are not put off by the radical DSA platform.

    DSA believes in ending the private ownership of industries whose products are viewed as “necessities.” The production of such products, it argues, should not be left to “profiteers.” It also believes that government should “democratize” private businesses — that is, give workers control over them — to the greatest extent possible. “Socialism,” explains a member of DSA’s national steering committee, “is the democratization of all areas of life, including but not limited to the economy.”

    What is happening in America, once the apotheosis of capitalism?

    The first part of that answer lies in two words, not “Karl Marx,” but “Bernie Sanders.” The senator from Vermont captured the hearts and the votes of many millennials with his call for single payer health care, free public college, campaign finance reform, and racial, economic, and climate justice. The prime target of his animus was the top 1 percent in America who own, it is true, some 40 percent of the nation’s total wealth — as much as the bottom 90 percent. What Bernie rarely pointed out was that the same top 1 percent paid 39.5 percent of the individual income taxes. Sanders had a ready explanation for how to pay for all of the freebies: increase the taxes on the rich and their corporations. In Bernie’s world, there is such a thing as a free lunch because the bill will be paid by those at the top.

    According to one CNN analyst, millennials rallied in the many thousands behind Sanders because they are socially liberal — especially on LGBT rights — saddled with mountains of student debt, disillusioned with the status quo, “and eager to break with traditional [political] models.” Bernie provided solutions to all their problems — without detailing the price or conceding the lessening in individual liberty. Such details were swept aside by the revolutionary spirit of the millennials who “felt the Bern.” As one Bernista said, “You can build a powerful political movement with a base of 2 million true believers.”

    The second reason for the shift toward socialism was the Great Recession of 2008. It tore a huge hole in the American people’s belief in capitalism as the way to a better life and sent them looking for alternatives. Many of them, especially younger Americans, found it in a “soft socialism” that was part welfare state, part administrative state, part socialist democracy.

    The most startling poll was the YouGov survey that reported that given a choice, 44 percent of young people between the ages of 16 and 29 would prefer to live in a socialist nation rather than a capitalist country. Another seven percent would choose communism. However, the same poll revealed that only 33 percent of the respondents could correctly define socialism as based on the common ownership of economic and social systems as well as the state control of the means of production. What most millennials mean by “socialism” seems to be a mix of our welfare state and what they perceive to be Swedish democratic socialism. But Sweden and the other Scandinavian countries including Denmark favor the free market and are content with private rather than government ownership of their major industries. However, Danish domestic spending including comprehensive health care has a high price — a top personal income tax of 57 percent.

    The millennial trend toward an acceptance of socialism is not new. A 2014 poll by Reason-Rupe, a libertarian group, reported that 58 percent of those aged 18 to 24 had a favorable view of socialism. A 2016 Gallup survey found that 55 percent of those 18-29 had a “positive image” of socialism. But 90 percent were favorable to “entrepreneurs” while 78 percent favored “free enterprise.” How can a group be 55 percent socialist and 78 per cent entrepreneurial? Either through cognitive dissonance or plain ignorance. In any case, it is critical for advocates of free enterprise to make the case against socialism because acceptance of socialism by any name places millennials on a slippery slope. Another recession and/or a well-run presidential campaign by a charismatic demagogue could move America farther down the road to serfdom.

    A 2016 Harvard poll determined that 33 percent of Americans under 30 wanted socialism. In January 2016, YouGov asked millennials whether they had a favorable or unfavorable opinion of socialism. Eight percent replied “very favorable,” 35 percent “somewhat favorable,” for a total of 43 percent, almost the same percentage as in their 2017 survey.

    But would these same millennials choose socialism, if in exchange for “free” education and “free” health care, they would have to give up their personal property, such as their iPhone? Would seven percent of millennials declare their willingness to live under communism if they knew the real costs of communism as practiced in some 40 nations over the past century — the denial of free speech, a free press, and free assembly, the imprisonment and execution of dissidents, no free and open elections, no independent judiciary or rule of law, the dictatorship of the Communist Party in all matters and on all occasions?

    For the first time in decades, socialists are taking advantage of the Bernie Sanders phenomenon to organize, raise funds, and field candidates from New York City to Oakland, California. A major instrument is DSA — the Democratic Socialists of America — about which the liberal New Republic asked, “Are the Democratic Socialists for America for Real?”

    The most dramatic proof of socialism’s new-found political clout was Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s upset victory over veteran Rep. Joseph Crowley of New York, the number four Democrat in the House of Representatives, in the June Democratic primary. Ocasio-Cortez received 57 percent of the vote — to Crowley’s 42 percent — while pledging to back Medicare for all, free college tuition, legalization of marijuana and the elimination of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).

    Attractive and articulate, the 28-year-old socialist announced she would support progressive candidates who challenged Democratic incumbents in primaries. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi cautioned Ocasio-Cortez not to oppose liberal Democrats who had a proven record of results. Former Sen. Joe Lieberman, the Democratic Party’s vice presidential nominee in 2000, warned that “the policies Ms. Ocasio-Cortez advocates are so far from the mainstream, her election in November would make it harder for Congress to stop fighting and start fixing problems.” He noted that Republicans were already referring to Ocasio-Cortez as “the new face” of the Democratic Party. But an ideologue like Ocasio-Cortez is unlikely to be ruled by conventional politics.

    The same can be said of Democratic Socialists. Over 700 elected delegates from around the country attended DSA’s 2017 national convention in Chicago, the historic site of many political beginnings from the 1860 presidential nomination of Abraham Lincoln to the riotous 1968 Democratic National Convention. Veterans of the organization were “blown away” by the enthusiasm of the younger DSA members whose priority is to win elections that advance socialism. Chicago City Councilman Carlos Ramirez-Rosa, aged 28, is one of DSA’s elected officials. He advised an ecumenical approach for socialist candidates — to run on the Democratic ballot line because it offers access to people who want single-payer healthcare and a $15 minimum wage. As part of its demographic outreach, Bianca Cunningham, the African-American chair of New York City’s DSA labor branch, helped to form a national Afro-socialist caucus.

    Until Ocasio-Cortez’s startling win, DSA and its leftist allies concentrated on elections at the state and local levels they have had success such as the victory of Councilman Khalid Kamau in South Fulton, Georgia. Kshama Sawant of the Socialist Alternative Party won a seat on Seattle’s city council and pushed through an increase in the city’s minimum wage to $15 an hour. Running as a socialist, thirty-four-year old Franklin Bynum was elected a criminal court judge in Houston. In Pittsburgh, eight Democrats sought the endorsement of the local DSA chapter in this year’s primary. Even in Tulsa, Oklahoma, one of the reddest of states, four Democrats ran as democratic socialists. “It’s not a liability to say that anymore,” commented DSA activist Jorge Roman-Romero.

    As proof of their expanding influence, socialists point to the radical magazine Jacobin, which has about 1 million page views a month, and the leftist podcast Chapo Trap House, which delights in ridiculing politicians and journalists on the center left. Following the 2016 election, for example, a Chapo co-host compared Hillary Clinton to race car driver Dale Earnhardt, joking that both had crashed because they “couldn’t turn left.” (Earnhardt was killed in a 2001 racing accident.) It was unvarnished commentary but no rougher than the frequent media comments about (or by) Donald Trump. Socialist publications like “n+1” and the “New Inquiry” have attracted younger readers with their unremitting attacks on capitalism.

    After Trump’s victory, commentators such as Michael Kazin, editor of the leftist magazine Dissent, thought that the Left would be on the defensive as “when Reagan and George W. Bush were in power.” Instead, there is a renewed interest in the radical left and the possibility that DSA “might be able and will certainly try to take advantage of it.”

    What does all this — the Sanders candidacy, the national polls, the political organizations like DSA, the intense media focus — add up to? Are they the makings of a national movement or merely a passing fancy temporarily fueled by young people who will soon get caught up in the next political fad? Let’s judge them by the five essential elements of a successful political movement: charismatic leadership, a national constituency, adequate financing, media proficiency, and a relevant philosophy.

    In some ways, the “new” DSA is reminiscent of Young Americans for Freedom in the early 1960s. Then YAF claimed a membership of 20,000, backed Sen. Barry Goldwater and his promise to offer a conservative choice and not a liberal echo, raised money with the help of OAFs (Older Americans for Freedom), convinced the media (led by the New York Times) that YAF was the wave of the future, and hoisted the anti-communist flag high at every rally and meeting. It was the height of the Cold War and America was engaged in a deadly struggle with the forces of evil.

    Like DSA, YAF leaders were mostly white, male, well-educated, and from middle-class families. They were young men in a hurry, certain they could change history, and so they did — first, with the presidential nomination of conservative Goldwater in 1964, and later the election of conservative Ronald Reagan as president in 1980. Bill Buckley was YAF’s luminous hero, the St. Paul of the conservative movement who went where no conservative had gone before — into the belly of the liberal beast, Harvard.

    As for DSA, it has a national constituency, principled if aging leaders like Sanders and Elizabeth Warren, fund-raising potential, strong media interest, and a philosophy attractive to Americans tired of sliding down the economic ladder and wondering what happened to the American Dream. Before dismissing the Democratic Socialists of America — and its compatriots — as idealistic and naïve, it should be remembered that the Tea Party had only 60,000 members in 2010 but won 47 seats in the House of Representatives that fall.

    On the road to socialism, DSA and its fellow socialists will seek to convert industries like health care into public utilities regulate coal mines out of existence subsidize sectors of the economy like solar energy and operate corporations like Amtrak and Freddie Mac. They will present socialism as the reasonable alternative to the unchecked greed of the captains of capitalism.

    However, as it grows in numbers and influence, DSA will encounter a critical discrepancy — the telling difference between its pure socialism and the soft socialism of popular opinion. DSA purists seek public ownership of the means of production as well as centralized control of goods and services. Soft socialists see a limited role for the private sector à la Sweden. Will DSA be able to fuse the two kinds of socialism as conservatives like Frank Meyer and William F. Buckley Jr. blended traditional conservatism and libertarianism in the 1960s and 1970s?

    Which brings us to the urgent need to depict the realities of socialism to Americans who have never heard of the Berlin Wall, the Gulag, the killing fields of Cambodia, the Tiananmen Square massacre, or the daily bread lines in Moscow.

    According to the YouGov survey, one-third of all Americans would prefer to live under socialism rather than capitalism. Why? Is it idealism — the desire for a classless society in which everyone is equal and envy does not exist because everything is owned in common? Is it a lack of knowledge? When asked how many people have died under communism, only 31 percent of Americans could provide the correct answer — “Over 100 million.” About seven in ten Americans could not define communism.

    Commented one millennial about his peers, “They don’t recognize that much of what they enjoy in life is a result of capitalism and would disappear if socialism were to be implemented. They haven’t seen socialism’s failures firsthand.”

    Here are the realities of socialism and its grandmaster, Karl Marx.

    Socialism in all its forms — Marxism-Leninism in the Soviet Union, Maoism in China, “state socialism” in India, “democratic socialism” in Sweden, National Socialism in Nazi Germany — has never come close to realizing the classless ideal of its founding father, Karl Marx. Instead, socialists have been forced to adopt a wide range of capitalist measures, including private ownership of railroads and airlines (United Kingdom), special economic zones (China), and open markets and foreign investment (Sweden).

    Mikhail Gorbachev took over a bankrupt Soviet Union in 1985 and desperately tried to resuscitate “socialism” (i.e., communism) through perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness). He failed abjectly and was forced to preside over the dissolution of the once mighty Soviet empire on Christmas Day, 1991, seven decades after Lenin mounted a truck in St. Petersburg to announce the triumph of the Bolshevik Revolution.

    In the late 1970s, Deng Xiaoping abandoned the rigid excesses of Maoist thought and adopted a form of communism with “Chinese characteristics” that was more capitalist than socialist in several ways. Deng, however, also ensured the Communist Party’s control of any new homeland enterprise or foreign investment.

    After decades of sluggish growth and bureaucratic inefficiency, India rejected state socialism in the 1990s and shifted to a capitalist approach that spawned the world’s largest middle class of more than three hundred million (nearly equal to the entire U.S. population). Sweden is often described as a “socialist” country, but is not and never has been socialist. It is a social democracy in which the means of production are owned primarily by private individuals. Among the proofs of its commitment to a market economy is that Sweden ranked number 19 worldwide in the Heritage Foundation’s 2017 Index of Economic Freedom.

    Socialism’s failure to deliver on its promises of bread, peace, and land to the people is confirmed by the repeated, open resistance of dissidents: in Hungary in 1956, Czechoslovakia in 1968, Poland in 1980 with the formation of Solidarity, China’s Tiananmen Square in 1989, and in present-day Cuba with the resolute Ladies in White who parade every Sunday after mass to call attention to the many jailed dissidents including their husbands and sons.

    Socialism failed in America in the early 19 th century when the English philanthropist Robert Owen launched New Harmony, a “village of cooperation” on the banks of the Wabash River in Indiana. Volunteers flocked to the socialist experiment, but most were better at sitting in a chair than making one. Within a few years, New Harmony collapsed, and Owen went home.

    Marx was an atheist socialist who insisted that his was the only “scientific” socialism based not on wishful thinking but the inexorable laws of history. The whole of history, declared Marx and his close collaborator and friend Friedrich Engels, is the history of the class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The inevitable collapse of capitalism and the victory of the proletariat would end the conflict and usher in a classless society and pure socialism or communism (Marx used both terms interchangeably). He listed 10 necessary measures as steps along the way to his utopia, including a progressive income tax, the abolition of private property, free education for all, and centralization of the means of communication and transport in “the hands of the state.”

    Much of the appeal of Marxism was its scathing critique of capitalism and its 19 th century excesses, which included 16-hour work days and Dickensian working conditions. It was the early days of the Industrial Revolution when exploitation of workers, young and old, was widespread and horrific. By the end of the century, much had changed. Capitalism was not breaking down under the pressure of industrial concentration as Marx had predicted. To the contrary, economies were expanding and the lives of workers were slowly but demonstrably improving. Rather than developing into revolutionaries (as predicted by Marx), the workers were becoming reformers and even bourgeoisie.

    The core philosophical weakness of Marxism was the founder’s insistence that his version of Hegelian dialectic — thesis, antithesis, synthesis — was scientific and without flaw. He asserted that feudalism had been replaced by capitalism which would be replaced by socialism in an irreversible process. But it is now close to 200 years since the publication of The Communist Manifesto, and capitalism rather than socialism dominates much of the global economy. In the Heritage Foundation’s 2018 Index of Economic Freedom, 102 countries, many of them less developed or emerging economies, showed advances in economic growth and individual prosperity. Economic freedom improved globally for the sixth year in a row.

    Marx was not the first utopian. Plato had his Republic,and Thomas More his Utopia. They were centrally ruled and devoid of individual choice. More’s Utopia was a highly regimented “paradise” in which all citizens dressed alike and lived in identical houses and where private discussion of public affairs incurred the death penalty. Marx insisted that his socialist Utopia would be different because it would be classless and free of all nationalist sentiment because the nation state would have withered away. Ever melodramatic, he called on the “workingmen of all countries” to unite against the ruling classes — they had “nothing to lose but their chains.”

    It was powerful rhetoric, but was Marx’s socialist world any more possible than the utopias proposed by Plato and More and other central planners? How good a historian and how accurate a prophet was Karl Marx?

    Contrary to Marx, feudalism broke down, not because of economic contradictions, but because of the new trade routes which helped England and other countries move from a land-based to a money-based economy. Capitalism did not emerge naturally as the antithesis of feudalism but through a series of events including the emergence of the Puritan ethic, inventions like the cotton gin, the individualism of the Enlightenment, and the emergence of classical liberalism in the writings of thinkers like Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.

    Nor did Marx anticipate that workers would become increasingly affluent, independent, and even bourgeois. He did not foresee that capitalists would address problems such as unemployment and inflation, monopolies, Social Security and health care, and the proper balance of private and public control over the means of production.

    Furthermore, the working class has not fallen into greater and greater misery. The industrial nations have seen a dramatic rise in the standard of living of the average worker. The middle class has not disappeared but expanded. As the esteemed economist Paul Samuelson wrote: “As a prophet Marx was colossally unlucky and his system colossally useless.”

    In The Communist Manifesto Marx says, “The theory of the communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property.” He knew that depriving individuals of this basic freedom would not be easy and that dictatorship by the proletariat — and violence — would be required. However, the abolition of private property is necessary, Marx argued, because it is the central cause of the perennial clash between the classes.

    But private property is not just any right it is integral to civilization. There never was a time or place when all possessions were collectively owned. There is no convincing evidence, writes the Harvard historian Richard Pipes, that there were societies that knew “no boundary posts and fences” or ignored “mine” and “thine.”

    It is often argued that socialism is a secular version of Christianity, referring to Acts 2-5, which describes the early Christians as having “all things in common.” It is true that following Pentecost, Christians sold their possessions and property and shared the results with “any [that] might have need.” But there is a critical distinction between Christians and socialists: Jesus urged his followers to give up their possessions while socialists want to give away the possessions of others. St. Paul is sometimes quoted as saying that “money is the root of all evil.” What he actually wrote in a letter to Timothy was that “loveof money is the root of all kinds of evil.” His indictment, as the former AEI president Arthur Brooks has pointed out, was of an inordinate attachment to money.

    More secular sources about the consequential role of private property can be cited. In The Constitution of Liberty, Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek writes that the recognition of private property is “an essential condition for the prevention of coercion.” He quotes Lord Acton as saying that “a people averse to the institution of private property is without the first element of freedom” and Henry Maine as asserting: “Nobody is at liberty to attack [private] property and to say at the same time that he values civilization. The history of the two cannot be disentangled.” In view of the alleged lack of individual liberty in classical Greece, writes Hayek, it deserves mention that in 5 th century Greece the sanctity of the private home was so recognized that even under the rule of the “Thirty Tyrants,” a man could save his life by staying at home. The power of private property indeed.

    Karl Marx’s attitude toward human nature flows from Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who challenged the traditional idea of a fixed human nature bestowed by God. Rousseau wrote, “We do not know what our nature permits us to be.” Locke saw human nature as a tabula rasa —a blank page. Hobbes famously described man’s natural state as “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”

    Marx borrowed from the Enlightenment to say that human nature is intrinsically malleable. The Communist state established by Lenin in Russia in November 1917, wrote Richard Pipes, was “a grandiose experiment in public education” to create an entirely new type of human being — Soviet Man.

    Christian theology with its idea of a fixed human nature infuriated Marx, who was not just an atheist but a God-hater who denounced religion as “the opium of the people.” His disciples, led by Lenin, always targeted the churches when they came to power. They initiated without apology a campaign of terror, shutting down churches, executing priests and bishops and violating nuns. The horrors were justified as part of the class-cleansing Marx envisioned.

    The Founders of the American Revolution rejected those who believed that man was born without any imprint and sided with those who accepted that man was born in the image of God. As the Declaration of Independence states, all men “are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.” The Founders disagreed with those who thought man was perfectible and instead took the Christian position that man’s nature was fallen.

    As Madison famously observed, “If men were angels there would be no need for government” and “ambition must be made to counteract ambition.” It is a reflection of human nature, Madison said, that “such devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government.” George Washington summed up the Founders’ realism: “We must take human nature as we find it, perfection falls not to the share of mortals.”

    The essential difference between the visions of Karl Marx and George Washington, aside from the question of human nature, is that in Marx’s socialist world there is a dictatorship of the Communist Party, while in a liberal democracy like the United States “We the People” tell the government what to do, the government does not tell the people what to do.

    Without exception, every socialist leader from Vladimir Lenin to Fidel Castro promised to initiate basic political freedoms such as free elections, a free press, and free assembly. None fulfilled those promises.

    Personal experience with this common falsehood has been eloquently provided by six famous intellectuals in The God That Failed. They describe their journey into Communism and their exit when they encountered the gigantic gap between their vision of a socialist Utopia and the totalitarian reality of the socialist state. All of them, points out editor Richard Crossman, chose Marxist socialism because they had lost faith in democracy and were willing to sacrifice “bourgeois liberties” in order to defeat Nazi Germany. Their socialist conversion was rooted in despair with Western values that produced the Great Depression and permitted Fascism.

    Their conversion was greatly strengthened by what Crossman calls “the Christian conscience” even among those who were not orthodox Christians. The emotional appeal of Marxist socialism lay in the sacrifices, material and spiritual, which it demanded as well as the unswerving obedience to the socialist line no matter how radically or quickly it changed. A case in point: Communists condemned Adolf Hitler throughout the 1930s until the summer of 1939, when Joseph Stalin and Hitler signed a non-aggression pact. Immediately, all “true” socialists were obliged to reverse course and hail the agreement as a major step toward peace. It was, in fact, a cynical deal that allowed the Nazis and the Soviets to invade and divide up Poland, thereby precipitating World War II.

    With the Hitler-Stalin pact, scales fell from the eyes of the six intellectuals, starting with the Hungarian novelist Arthur Koestler, who now condemned the infamous show trials ordered by Stalin: “At no time and in no country have more revolutionaries been killed and reduced to slavery than in Soviet Russia.” The American black writer Richard Wright wrote, “At that [socialist] meeting I learned that when a man was informed of the wish of the Party he submitted, even though he knew with all the strength of his brain that the wish was not a wise one, was one that would ultimately harm the Party’s interests.”

    After visiting the Soviet Union, the French Nobel Laureate André Gide said bluntly, “I doubt whether in any country in the world — not even in Hitler’s Germany — have the mind and spirit ever been less free, more bent, more terrorized and indeed vassalized — than in the Soviet Union.” Gide said that “the Soviet Union has deceived our fondest hopes and shown us tragically in what treacherous quicksand an honest revolution can founder.”

    The American journalist Louis Fisher, once an enthusiastic chronicler of Soviet economic advances, recounted how much the Soviet Union had changed: “Ubiquitous fear, amply justified by terror, had killed revolt, silenced protest, and destroyed civil courage. In place of idealism, cynical safety-first. In place of dedication, pursuit of personal aggrandizement. In place of living spirit, dead conformism, bureaucratic formalism, and the parrotism of false clichés.”

    So it was in the Soviet Union under Stalin so it has been in every socialist experiment since the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The Soviet-Nazi agreement was the cracking point for many intellectuals in the West, including the American Louis Fisher, who accused Stalin of building an imperialistic militaristic system in which he is, and his successor will be, “the Supreme Slave Master.” How then, Fisher asked, can anyone interested in the welfare of people and the peace and progress of humanity support such a system? “Because there is rottenness in the democratic world?” he asked and answered, “We can fight the rottenness. What can Soviet citizens do about Stalinism?”

    It took decades, but the citizens of all the nations behind the Iron Curtain finally threw off their chains in 1989, and wrote finis to Soviet communism. Tragically, there are still more than 1 billion people living today under the Marxist socialist regimes of China, Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, and Laos.

    If you were asked how many Jews died in the Holocaust, you would probably respond, “Six million.” We learned the correct answer in our schools and universities, through the books and articles we have read, the movies and television programs we have watched, our conversations with families, friends, and colleagues. There is a continuing campaign to remind us of the Holocaust and to declare, “Never again.” And rightly so. The holocaust carried out by the Nazis — their deliberate campaign of genocide — was the greatest evil of the 20 th century.

    But if you were asked, “How many victims of communism have there been?” You would probably hesitate and respond — “Five million? Twenty million? Fifty million?” Few of us would know the right answer: at least 100 million men, women, and children, more than all the deaths of all the major wars of the 20 th century. Communism committed the great crime of the last century.

    It is a number difficult to comprehend, let alone accept. Surely, you might say, there could not have been that many. But we can be certain of saying that there have been at least 100 million victims of communism because of the painstaking research of the editors of The Black Book of Communism, published by the Harvard University Press. They document that each and every Marxist socialist regime has prevailed by way of a pistol to the back of the head and a death sentence in a forced labor camp.

    There is no exception whether in China under Mao Zedong, North Korea under Kim Il Sung, Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh, Cuba under Fidel Castro, Cambodia under Pol Pot, or Ethiopia under Mengistu Haile Mariam.

    According to Stephane Courtois, the editor in chief of The Black Book of Communism, the leading mass murderer is Pol Pot, whose attempt to communize Cambodia resulted in the deaths of one fourth of the country’s population. His closest rival is Mao, under whom as many as 40 million Chinese died in just one socialist campaign — the grossly misnamed Great Leap Forward. Of the Soviet Union’s first two dictators, Lenin and Stalin, Courtois says, “The blood turns cold at its venture into planned, logical and ‘politically collect’ mass slaughter.”

    What price socialism? We must not limit ourselves to numbers.

    The Chinese philosopher Lin Yutang listed the “little terrors” that prevailed in China — making children of 12 subject to capital punishment, sending women to work in underground coal mines, harassing workers during their lunchtime with threats of prison if they were late returning to work.

    There were the costs in terror. One Soviet defector wrote about Soviet life: “We lived in a world swarming with invisible eyes and ears.”

    There were the costs in thought control. The content of everything in print and broadcast was limited to authorized “truths.” The Soviet press dismissed the 1932-33 forced famine in Ukraine that took the lives of seven million innocents as an anti-communist myth. One Western apologist for the regime, Edouard Herriot, wrote: “I have crossed the whole of Ukraine, and I can assure you that the entire country is like a garden in full bloom.”

    There were the costs to the world. There was no crisis anywhere in the world from Southeast Asia to the Caribbean, from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, in which the ideological ambitions of Moscow and its imitators, driven by Marxist-Leninist thought, were not involved throughout the 20 th and into the 21 st century.

    This is the reality of socialism — a pseudo-religion grounded in pseudo-science and enforced by political tyranny. This is the case against socialism — a god that failed, a science that never was, a political system headed for the ash heap of history.

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